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APWH

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Maddie Tucker

on 27 April 2013

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Transcript of APWH

Religions 1450-1750 Vodun originates in the Caribbean Sikhism originates in South Asia Buddhism continues to spread within Asia ... Kendra Stewart, Kristin Moore, & Fathima Haseefa Islam continues to expand... As it spreads to new areas in Afro-Eurasia, believers adapt it to local cultural practices

Split between Sunni & Shi'a traditions intensifies

Sufism (Islamic mysticism) becomes more widespread The Protestant Reformation Begins... REFORM: to make changes in something in order to improve it
Caused by corruption & political conflicts in the Church between the Kings & the Pope
An event which split 16th century Western Christianity
Lack of religious unity created both religious & political tensions The leading French Protestant Reformer
Born into a family of Roman Catholic faith
Studied law & was a preacher
Converted to Protestantism after experiencing some sort of spiritual crisis
Valued education, hard work, family life, . & high moral standards
Addressed the governance, social organization, & strict moral code of the church
Wrote the book The Institutes of Christian Religion
In this book, he wrote about how humans are completely sinful & cannot gain salvation
Incorporated the church into the government
Founded Calvinism, a sect which greatly influenced religious development in Scotland (under John Knox) & France (w/ the growth of the Huguenots) Another prominent figure... John Calvin The King of England
Wanted to divorce his wife because he did not have a son as heir to his throne
The pope denied his annulment of marriage-- this made King Henry VIII renounce Rome and declare himself the head of religious affairs in England
Became the head of the Church of England (aka the Anglican Church) in 1530
Had several wives beheaded because they did not bear any male heirs And finally... Henry VIII Other religious developments... Origin: Punjab area, c. 1500 CE
Founder: Guru Nanak
A blend of Islam + Hinduism
A monotheistic religion
Emphasizes equality of all humans
When Aurangzeb ascended the throne of Mughal India, he abolished religious tolerance & started to threaten Sikhs The word "vodun" is traced from an African word for "spirit"
Also known as voodoo
Belief in spirits' divine essence in controlling the earth
Weaves together different strands of Roman Catholicism, Dahomey, Yorub, & Kongoese religious beliefs
Has sparked a tradition of art & architecture in many Caribbean countries Sources: The Father of the Reformation:
Martin Luther Became a German monk after surviving a violent storm
Wanted to begin a discussion within the Church about the true path to salvation
Criticized church practices, such as selling indulgences (a piece of paper the faithful could purchase to reduce time in purgatory - place where they expiated for sins before going to Heaven)
Wrote the "95 Theses" about what the church needed to change & nailed it to the door of the cathedral
Pope Leo X ordered him to formally retract his theses
His ideas spread quickly via the printing press
Millions of people sided with his views (against the Roman Catholic Church) & came to be known as the Lutherans http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/sikhism/history/history_1.shtml
http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/s/sikhism/
http://dickinsg.intrasun.tcnj.edu/diaspora/caribe.html
http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/tudor-stuart/the-minster-after-the-reformation
http://www.history.com/topics/reformation
http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/impact-of-the-reformation
http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac18
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-protestant-reformation.htm
http://www.articlemyriad.com/consequences-effects-thirty-years-war/
http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/tudor-stuart/the-minster-after-the-reformation
http://www.history.com/topics/reformation
http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/impact-of-the-reformation
http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac18
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-protestant-reformation.htm
http://www.articlemyriad.com/consequences-effects-thirty-years-war/
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/council-of-trent.htm
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Jesuits.htm
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/How-successful-was-the-Counter-Reformation.htm Independent Thinking Martin Luther told the people that they did not need the Catholic Church in order to interact with God, but only their Bibles
Luther sparked the idea to question the ways of the church
Europeans started becoming more literate & focusing on rational thinking (such as education, politics, & science)
Another philosophy that arose was humanism, which is when the people start to focus on individuality
Some Christians were able to hold onto their beliefs as they studied, but others began to reject the church's ways that were not scientifically correct
Atheists - those who believe that God does not exist
Deism - belief in God's existence, but passive role in life
This rational thinking led to the Scientific Revolution & later to the Industrial Revolution Cult of Saints in Latin America The Counter Reformation the Catholic response to the Protestant
Reformation

Council of Trent - a group of Church officials who clarified the Catholic Church's position on important religious questions Impacts of the Reformation 30 Years' War - fought from 1618-1648 over religious differences & political conflicts




Fought between the Catholics and the Protestants
Because of this war, the power shifted from the Catholic Church to the individual leaders A syncretic form (combination of different beliefs) of Christianity
Provided natives with an easier transition to Christianity that allowed them to retain aspects of their culture by building on native rituals & practices
Important native people/gods/rulers often got incorporated into Catholic sainthood Rulers continued legitimizing their rule using various religious ideas, such as… European monarchs believed their power to rule was given to them by God, so defiance of their rule was = to defiance of God Hello Divine Right,
Goodbye Mandate of Heaven Divine Right Mandate of Heaven Chinese emperors believed they were divinely chosen but would only be given authority to rule so long as they pleased heaven Songhay Promotion
of Islam Chinese Emperors’ Public Performance of Confucian Rituals Mexica/ Aztec Practice of Human Sacrifice Safavid Use of Shiism Do I really look Chinese? http://www.xtranormal.com/watch/14137961/voodooz-movie One of the largest Islamic Empires in history

Askia Muhammad - 1st ruler of the Askia dynasty (1492–1592)
Encouraged non-Muslims to convert
Invited scholars to his country --> became a center of learning (esp. Timbuktu & Jenne)

As the # of Muslims increased, Songhai became the greatest African empire Iranian dynasty (1499-1736)
Established Shiite Islam in Iran as an official state religion
(in place of Sunni)
Conducted over a special Altar of Heaven
Emperor barefoot
Prostrated himself before the celestial deities
Orchestra playing hymns The Jesuits...a society founded by Ignatius Loyola to spread Catholic doctrine around the world during the Counter Reformation Who's the man?
I am!

Whoop whoop for Ignatius Loyola! Idea of maintaining order w/in the natural world
If disrupted, famines, floods, rebellions & other disasters would occur Believed that whether or not the coming year was going to be good or bad was determined by how skillfully he performed the ritual The performance of these rituals was critical to receiving the Mandate of Heaven Believed that sacrifice to the gods was necessary to ensure the continuity of the world & balance of the universe
2 types of sacrifice:
1. Involving humans
2. Involving animals or other offerings
Served the Aztecs to subjugate their neighbors (sacrifices intended to obtain war captives & slaves) Timbuktu Jenne
Full transcript