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Transcript of Romanticism 1770-1850
Imagination: Romantic authors such as Edgar Allen Poe and Mary Shelley are very popular.
Individualism: Ideas are fueled by both American and French Revolutions.
Creativity: Authors embrace new forms in poetry and literature.
Emotion/Experience: Thinkers valued experience over reason.
A reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment which stressed the importance of reason, logic, and understanding nature.
From pessimism to idealism.
Ideas of this time can be best remembered with the acronym N.I.I.C.E
Nature: Romantic authors appreciated the beauty and power of nature.
Major changes in religion and people's attitudes toward religion:
Attendance is down
General belief church is out of touch with common person.
Perception of religious leaders as hypocritical
New religions, primarily Methodist
The American Revolution sparks revolutions across Europe, namely in France.
July 14, 1789 an angry mob storms the Bastille prison in Paris.
In 1793, Louis XVI is beheaded and revolutionary fever turns into the reign of terror.
Led by Robespierre, revolutionaries behead enemies and friends that disagree with them.
Robsepierre beheaded in 1794.
A young Corsican military officer, he stages a coup in 1799.
He leads France into the Napoleonic Wars and was eventually dictator of continental Europe.
Napoleon's retreat from Russia is depicted in Tolstoy's War and Peac
Some authors become ultra revolutionaries while others return to conservative roots.
The Age of Progress
The philosophical and political changes of the first half of the 19th century led to this label for this time period.
The Rise of Democracy/Fall of the Monarchy
Charles Darwin - theory of evolution upsets people's ideas of who they are and where they come from.
Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations:
The idea that the economy would regulate itself if left alone.
These economic ideas pave the way for Russian Communism.
These theories also impact the Great Depression in the US in the early 1930s.
Karl Marx - The Communist Manifesto
The Industrial Revolution
An emphasis on technological thinking during the Enlightenment leads to several significant technological advancements:
The steam engine
The electric dynamo
New processes for producing aluminum and steel
The electric light
The repeating rifle
The cotton gin
A new middle class becomes the most powerful class in Europe.
Gap between the rich and poor grows.
Farmers flood to city to work in factories and find only slums and squalor.
Pollution, urbanization, and progress become "bad" words.
Poetry becomes the ultimate "creative" form. Poets deviate from rigid structure of previous years.
Nature becomes symbol for human emotion in all literature.
Development of dark Romanticism and the horror novel.
Rise of the slave narrative in US
Development of the romantic hero