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psy383_introductory_neuroanatomy

Meet the brain! (mostly macroanatomy)
by

Will Moore

on 22 February 2016

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Transcript of psy383_introductory_neuroanatomy

Nobel Laureate (1933)
Father of Quantum Mechanics
So what do brains DO?
Entropy
The amount of information an event provides
- An infrequently occurring event provides more information that a frequently occurring event
The uncertainty in the outcome of an event
- Systems with one common event have less entropy than systems with many equally probable events
The dispersion in the probability distribution
- An image of a single amplitude has a less disperse histogram than an image of many grayscales
neuron
Potential murderer of imaginary cats
error: variance in y that cannot be predicted by x
What does this have to do with drugs?
this is what Friston says...
...he's probably right
The Nervous System
ACh
NE
neocortex
largely multi-sensory
laminar organization
last to develop
most recently evolved
cerebellum
(not neocortex)
brainstem
controls basic functions

evolutionarily ancient
highly conserved
(e.g., heartbeat, breathing)
(across species)
insula
5th lobe?
interoception

uncertainty
salience
awareness of one's somatic state
addiction?
brain
(sans neocortex)
basal ganglia
motor initiation
action value
crucial to addiction
striatum
caudate
putamen
dorsal
nucleus
accumbens
ventral
(not part of the striatum)
midbrain
substantia nigra
peri-aqueductal grey
peri-aqueductal grey
substantia nigra
serotonin (5-HT)
raphe
nuclei
acetylcholine (ACh)
dopamine (DA)
norepinephrine (NE)
ventral tegmental area (VTA)
substantia nigra (SN)
locus coeruleus
pontine complex
(pontinemesencephalotegmental )
brainstem
neither limbic...
...nor system
synapse
neurotransmitter
systems
neurotransmitter cycle
(not visible!)
ion channels
passive
voltage gated
receptors
ionotropic
metabotropic
ligand-gated ion channels

can be excitatory OR inhibitory
fast neurotransmission
slow neurotransmission
G-protein coupled
open/close ion channel
change cellular metabolism
(what kind / how much protein to make)
example: acetylcholine
when ACh binds, the channel opens to Na+
when ACh binds, sends intracellular message to open K+ channel
transport
carriers
ligand gated
active transport
pump
neurotransmitter
transporter
enzymes
proteins synthesized in a neuron that regulate metabolic activity
involved in synthesis or breakdown of neurotransmitters
targets for drugs
regulate gene expression
trans-membrane spanning domains
just think of this as a chemical cascade that is dependent upon enzymatic activity
insane
in the
membrane

can transport ions OR molecules
(e.g., neurotransmitter, NT precursors, etc.) across the cell membrane
trans-membrane spanning domains
example:
serotonin
up/down-regulation of receptors depends on enzymes!!!
SERT
fluxoteine
super-families
12
7
trans-membrane spanning domains
4
Full transcript