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OB Presentation

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Zac Gordon-Boyd

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of OB Presentation

Outline the main propositions of three different leadership theories. In your response, consider the strengths and weaknesses of each theory and recognise their contribution to our understanding of leadership in the contemporary workplace.

Fiedler's 1967 Three Factor Theory
Contingency/Situational Theories
of Leadership
Hersey and Blanchard's 1988 Situational Leadership Theory
Contemporary Understanding
Not very flexible or adaptable.

Are leaders imperative in the modern day?

No one optimum style

Input of followers
Weaknesses/Critical Outlook
Limited factor outlook

'One best way' in each situation

LPC only has 50% reliability
Neha (2011)
Contingency/Situational Theories
Business Balls (2014)
Individualistic Theories

Ashmos Plowman, D. (2007). The role of leadership in emergent, self- organization. [online] Digitalcommons.unl.edu. Available at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1066&context=managementfacpub [Accessed 3 May. 2014].

Bjerke, B. 1999. Business leadership and culture: National management styles in
the global economy. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Burns, J.M. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Business Balls. 2013. Situational Leadership. [Online]. [Accessed 1 April 2014].
Available from: http://www.businessballs.com/slanalysis.htm

Bryman, A. 1986. Leadership and Organizations. London: Routledge.

Fiedler, F. 1967. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fiedler, F. and Chemers, M. 1984. Improving Leadership Effectiveness: The Leader
Match Concept. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

Graeff, C.L. 1997. Evolution of Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical Review. The Leadership Quarterly. [Online]. 8(2), pp.153-170. [Accessed 25 March 2014]. Available from: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S104898439790014X/1-s2.0-S104898439790014X-main.pdf?_tid=4ee6ac72-b426-11e3-881a-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1395756417_26679ca16d27d37f14ae13031ebdc95e

Hersey, P. and Blanchard K.H. 1988. Management of Organizational Behaviour: Utilizing
Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Huczynski, A.A. and Buchanan D.A. 2013. Organizational Behaviour. 8th ed. Harlow:
Pearson Education Ltd
References (2)
King, D. and Lawley, S. 2013. Organizational Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University

Martin, J. (1962). Managerial Grid. [online] Maaw.info. Available at: http://maaw.info/ManagerialGrid.htm [Accessed 3 May. 2014].

MITSloan Management. 2004. MIT leadership center. [Online]
Available from http://mitleadership.mit.edu/r-mulcahy.php

Mitchell, T.R., Biglan, A., Oncken, G.R. and Fiedler, F.E. 1970. The Contingency Model: Criticisms and Suggestions. Academy of Management Journal. [Online]. 13(3), pp.253-268. [Accessed 25 March 2014]. Available from: http://0-web.a.ebscohost.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=0dca5a55-6046-42cd-ac4a-1ffd6a8a9d5f%40sessionmgr4005&hid=4207

Neha. 2011. Leadership Theories/Schools. 16th May 2011. HR Knowledge. [Online]. [Accessed 25 March 2014]. Available from: http://ehaspeakshr.blogspot.co.uk/2011_05_01_archive.html

Robbins, S.P., Judge, T.A. and Campbell, T.T. 2010. Organizational Behaviour. 13th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.

Virkus, S. (2009). Leadership Models. [online] Tlu.ee. Available at: http://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/Leadership/Leadership%20Models/index.html [Accessed 4 May. 2014].
Behavioural Theory
What is Behavioural
Attributes can be trained and passed on.

Contrary to the Trait Theory

Managerial Grid Model
Contribution to Leadership in Workplace
Leadership - what you do
Adaptability makes it possible to be more diverse
Positive reinforcement encourages employees
Punishments for poor behaviour
Better than previous options but can be simplistic
Adaptable in new business environment
Motivates employees on specific day to day behaviours
Skinner's Operant Conditioning: variable rewards are more motivating than fixed rewards

Slightly basic
Different types of leaders can be effective in different situations
Ignores the importance of intrinsic and internal rewards

Ohio State
Two Dimensions of Leadership Behaviour:
Consideration – working with subordinates
i.e. supportive, respectful of ideas
Initiating Structure – task orientated
i.e. clear directions on what, when and how work is to be completed
University of Michigan
Leader’s behavior is a mix of:
Employee orientation
Good relationship between employer and employee
Production Orientation
Focus on accomplishing firms goals as oppose to the happiness of employees.


- Founded by Thomas Carlyle

- Leaders are BORN not MADE

- Such leaders are RARE and can’t

- There are characteristics that make
great leaders great

- Sir Francis Galton – “Hereditary

- Presents leaders as superior to
ordinary people

- E.g. Margaret Thatcher, Winston
Churchill, Nelson Mandela


- Best leader possible

- Position as a leader is

- Ensures the leader can handle the

- When the leader falls the theory falls with him

- Tendency towards elitism

- Difficult to define what makes a good leader

Steve Jobs:
His individual brilliance led him becoming the defining leader of his firm

Anne Mulcahy:
Her individual traits transformed the fortunes of Xerox

Law firm:
Great character traits enable the cream, to rise to the top e.g senior partner

Team Members:
Lucy Stephenson Zac Gordon-Boyd
Alice Montoya Cara Meadows-Smith
George Magaji Ben Martin

Individualistic Theories
Behavioural Theories
Contingency/Situational Theories
What we think...
The Three Theories
Several different leadership theories
Focusing on...
A review found that Leaders who were high in Consideration
Had higher Job Satisfaction from their subordinates
Had higher Motivation from their subordinates.
Had more respect from their subordinates.

Whilst Leaders who were high in initiating structure
Had higher levels of Group and Organizational Productivity
Had more positive performance evaluations

Source: Huczynski and Buchanan (2013)
Sources: King and Lawley (2013) and Robbins et al. (2010)
Sources: Huczynski and Buchanan (2013) and King and Lawley (2013)
Sources: Huczynski and Buchanan (2013) and King and Lawley (2013)
Source: MITSloan Management (2004)
Sources: Huczynski and Buchanan (2013) and Graeff (1997)
Sources: King and Lawley (2013) and Mitchell et al. (1970)
Sources: King and Lawley (2013)
Sources: Virkus (2009)
Ashmos Plowman, D. (2007)
Source: Huzcynski and Buchanan (2013)
Source: King and Lawley (2013) and Robbins et al (2010)
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