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Transcript of Psychological Disorders
Psychological Disorders and the DSM-V-TR
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Somatoform Disorders (conversion and hypochronriasis)
Mood Disorders-major (depression)
Drug Addiction and Treatment
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive and in a state of automatic nervous system arousal.
Signs and Symptoms
• Worrying or obsessing constantly
• Having a hard time concentrating or simply may just “go blank”
• Muscle aches or tension
• Twitching eyelids, trembling, fidgeting
• Trouble sleeping
• Nausea or diarrhea
• Rapid heartbeat or shortness of breath
Like other mental disorders, cause of GAD are not fully understood
Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine can cause GAD
if GAD runs in the family, more common for the child to be diagnosed with it too
Stressful or traumatic events....
getting a new job
moving to a new city/school
Anxiety can worsen, if he or she is using or withdrawing from drugs, alcohol, caffeine or nicotine
examples-Paroxetine, Sertraline, venlafaxine
Makes he or she feel calm and relaxed
Examples-Xanax, Librium, Valium
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
During this treatment, the patient learns to identify his or her own negative thoughts and behaviors. Then, the counselor, therapist helps the patient replace all their negative thoughts with positive thoughts instead.
She has been dealing with generalized anxiety disorder
On August 29, 2012, Leann checked herself into a 30-day treatment facility to deal with her anxiety and stress
Since being in the spotlight at the age of 12, she had a lot of stress piled up and she never felt like a kid.
After the treatment facility, Leann feels confident, secure, honest and comfortable with herself.
Her album, Spit Fire, acts like a musical therapy for her. This way she writes about all her troubles in her songs.
A Phobia is "an overwhelming and unreasonable fear of an object or situation that poses little real danger" (MayoClinic).
Specific Phobias: Claustrophobia; Acrophobia
Signs and Symptoms
"What Is Generalized Anxiety Disorder?" About.com Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"LeAnn Rimes Opens Up About Rehab: "No One" Understood My Pain." Latest News. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"Learn More About General Anxiety Disorder." WebMD. WebMD, 03 Jan. 0000. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"Generalized Anxiety Disorder." Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
Uncontrollable Anxiety when associated with fear
Anxiety can include:
Increased Heart rate
Feeling of Choking
In children: Tantrums, clinging and crying
Usually begins in childhood or early teens years.
Causes are mostly unknown but can be influenced by
Genetics and biological influences
Sedatives (calm anxiety)
"Beta Blockers"- blocks adrenaline in Fight or Flight
Fear of Clowns: Coulrophopia
Fear of Flying: Aviophobia
Schizophrenia typically strikes as young people are maturing ino adulthood
-Knows no national boundaries and affects both sexes
-Studies show Swedish and Danish males who are thin and were not breastfed are more vulnerable
-can develop gradually or appear suddenly
-when schizophrenia is slow-developing (Chronic) recovery is doubtful
Somatoform Disorders- A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.
1. Conversion- A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.
2. Hypochrondriasis- A somatoform disorder is which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
A mood disorder in which someone has periods of being extremely happy (mania), being extremely irritable, or falling into a depression.
A psychological disorder is a pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple life areas and/or create distress, deviant, and dysfunctional behavior for the affected person.
Apply to Famous Person
Signs and Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms of Panic Attacks
Examples of Psychological Disorders
shortness of breath or hyperventilation
feeling detached and unreal from your surroundings
numbness or tingling sensations
fear of dying
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Causes of the Disorder
Flashbacks of traumatic event
Avoiding situations that reminds one of the event
Negative changes in beliefs and feelings
Constantly feeling on edge and alert
Modern day therapy has greatly strayed from past ideas and presumptions. Therapy is a mix of treatments that are used to try to relieve and or heal illness.
Schizophrenia is a group of severe brain disorders in which people interpret reality abnormally.
Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations,delusions, and disordered thinking and behavior.
The word schizophrenia means "split mind" but it refers to a disruption of the usual balance of emotions and thinking.
Schizophrenia is a chronic condition, requiring lifelong treatment.
It has four subtypes: Paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated residual schizophrenia.
-frequent mood swings
-suspicion or mistrust
-difficulty making friends
-a need for instant gratification
-poor impulse control
panic attacks usually reach their peak within 10 minutes.
they last from 20 to 30 minutes
they rarely last more than an hour
What is a Drug Addiction?
Conversion Disorder Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Usually happen away from home, but they can happen when and whenever.
loss of sensation or numbness
Causes of drug Addiction
Signs & Symptoms of a Panic Disorder
Formerly called: Maniac Depressive Disorder
Mood Disorders: mental disorders that are characterized by periods of depressions, also alternating with periods of positive moods
behaviors that prompt health anxiety
"Fears & Phobias Of Hollywood Celebs." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Sept. 2013. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
"Fears and Phobias of 25 Big Celebrities - Netscape Entertainment." Fears and Phobias of 25 Big Celebrities - Netscape Entertainment. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"Phobias: MedlinePlus." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
"Phobias: Specific Phobias Types and Symptoms." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2014.
"Phobias." Treatment at Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2014.
"ThePhobia List." ThePhobia List. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2014.
"Treating a Woman for Snake Phobia." YouTube. YouTube, 04 Mar. 2012. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
Frequent unexpected panic attacks. They can occur at anytime.
You are constantly worrying about having another panic attack
avoiding places where you have recently had a panic attack
If a person has a panic disorder, panic attacks will start to leave an emotional toll.
Signs and Symptoms
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders 5th Text Revision
Psychoanalysis was the first of the psychological therapies. This therapy, developed by Sigmund Freud, aims to unearth people's childhood past and their buried feelings so that they can take responsibility for their own growth. Freud believed healthier, less anxious living became possible after releasing energy previously devoted to the id-ego-superego conflict.
-affects your energy level, judgment, memory, concentration, appetite, sleep patterns, and self-esteem.
-linked to anxiety, substance abuse
-health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, migraines, and high blood pressure.
4 types of mood episodes:
It is a classification system of 250 psychological disorders
Describes various disorders and their diagnostic processes
Consists of three major components: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptive text.
Clinicians answer a series of objective questions about observable behaviors
Used to gain understanding about a patient's condition in order to develop treatment methods
Used by clinicians around the world
Takes extensive training for effective use
Causes for Disorder
Counseling for family and friends
Prescription and non prescription medicine do not work, as they have side affects
Antidepressants and talk therapy
Improving daily functioning, not on managing symptoms
Hot and cold packs
Stress reduction exercises
"Children's Health." Mood Disorders. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
Signs & Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Most Popular Treatments
DSM-5 may not be able to match a person's symptoms with a disorder directly, but it can give doctors a good idea about the patient's situation.
More about DSM-5
DSM-5 is an APA publication.
Some insurance companies require a DSM-5 before they will pay for therapy or other treatment.
Critics claim that the DSM-5 overextends the criteria for what qualifies as a mental disorder.
The diagnostic classification is the list of mental disorders that are officially a part of the DSM system.
DSM-5 is often used for statistical purposes
Cherry, Kendra. "What Is a Psychological
Disorder?" About.com Psychology. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders." Seven Counties Services Inc. CenterSite, n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"DSM." American Psychiatric Association. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
Insurance Implications of DSM-5. N.p.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. PDF.
Myers, David G. Psychology. Ninth ed. Holland: Worth, 2010. Print.
"Understanding How to Use the DSM-IV-TR | Dsm Iv." DSM IV.net. Dsm Iv, 15 Feb. 2010. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"a dissociative mental disorder in which two or more distinct personalities exist within the same individual; formerly known as multiple personality disorder" (APA)
an individual with DID has two or more distinct identities or personalities that have power over that person's behavior
there is an inability to recall personal information not explained by just forgetfulness
when a personality starts becoming apparent and is in control of the individual it is called "switching"
each identity has its own gender, race, and age and embodies unique gestures, postures, and distinct speech patterns
the personalities may be imaginary or even animals
Schizophrenia is commonly diagnosed anywhere in the mid-teens to early 30s.
It's uncommon for children to be diagnosed with schizophrenia and rare for those older than 45.
Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia generally are divided into three categories — positive, negative and cognitive.
Positive symptoms reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions. These symptoms may include:
People with DID often have other psychological disorders. Symptoms of those and of DID are present in patients.
anxiety, panic attacks, and phobias
alcohol and/or drug abuse
"out of body experiences"
violence toward themselves and others
Cause of DID
DID is an effect of severe trauma during early childhood of extreme and repetitive abuse.
Negative symptoms simply refer to a diminished or absence of characteristics of normal, everyday function. They may appear with or without positive symptoms. The symptoms may include:
Loss of interest in everyday activities
Appearing to lack emotion
Reduced ability to plan or carry out activities
Neglect of personal hygiene
Loss of motivation
Treatments for DID
There is no cure for DID, but long-term treatments are successful with full cooperation of the patient. Treatments for DID include talk or psychotherapy, medication, hypnotherapy, art and movement therapy. Medications that are given are not for DID, but are for one of the other multiple psychological disorders the patient likely has. Medication for disorders like anxiety or depression have shown to be successful with DID patients.
Cognitive symptoms involve problems with thought processes. These symptoms can be the most disabling for schizophrenics because they interfere with the ability to perform routine daily tasks. A person with schizophrenia may be born with these symptoms. They may include:
Problems with making sense of information
Difficulty paying attention
Schizophrenia symptoms in teenagers and children are similar to those in adults, but the condition may be more difficult to recognize. This may be in part because some of the early symptoms especially in teenagers are common during the first 18 years of age. Symptoms such as:
Withdrawal from friends and family
A drop in performance at school
Suicidal Thoughts and/or Actions
Suicidal thoughts/ actions are very common signs and symptoms in ALL schizophrenic age groups.
Kahn, Ada P., and Jan Fawcett. "schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders." Health Reference Center. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
Mayo Clinic Staff. "Schizophrenia." Mayo Clinic- Diseases and Conditions. Mayo Clinic, n.d. Web. Dec. 2014.
Myers, David G. Psychology. 9th ed. New York: Worth, 2010. Print.
Herschel Walker was a former NFL running back and Heisman Trophy Winner who is living with DID and has been for his entire life. He has only been in treatment for eight years. Walker has recently published a book where he tells of his struggles with DID and his suicide attempts. He talks about his disconnect from childhood to even his professional career and how his different personalities were a coping mechanism.
Walker developed personalities to help him with the abuse he felt in life. One identity felt no loneliness while another felt the need to dispense the anger he otherwise held back. He developed other personalities that helped him rise to his successful professional career.
Psychotherapy is the most popular treatment option for those with DID. An EEG test helps doctors determine what medication is best for patients based on the results. There are no new medications developed for this just the EEG to help prescribe.
Depression: a mood disorder that consists of feelings of sadness, anger, confusion, or frustration and these feelings interfere daily life for a longer period of time
Symptoms & Signs
irritable and negative mood
loss of interest in usual activities
getting no sleep or too much sleep
big change in weight gain or weight loss
self-hate, self-blame, and major guilt
unusually slow or fast movements
hopelessness or helplessness
suicidal or death related thoughts
Be able to act witty and charming.
Be good at flattering and being able to manipulate others emotions.
Constantly breaking the law.
Disregard the safety of them self along with others.
Have problems with substance abuse.
Doesn't show any guilt of remorse.
In fights, lying, and stealing often.
Often found to be angry or arrogant.
This is a difficult disorder to treat.
Behavioral treatments are the most effective with this disorder.
the person is rewarded when a positive act is done.
the person will receive consequences when a negative act is committed.
Talk therapy can be successful with treating this disorder.
Mood disorders and substance disorders are also treated to help along with the other treatments.
Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. Antisocial Personality Disorder. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 11 Oct. 2012. Web. 05 Jan. 2014.
Myers, David G. "Psychological Disorders." Psychology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. N. pag. Print.
"Charlie Sheen and Borderline Personality Disorder." Anything to Stop the Pain BPD and NonBPDs. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
The main cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown.
The genetic and environmental factors such as abuse and abandonment, are believed to contribute to this disorder.
Parents that are alcoholics and antisocial are believe to contribute to this disorder as well.
An episode of intense fear that triggers severe physical reactions, even when there is no danger present.
There is no exact cause of a panic disorder. But some biological and environmental factors play a role...
a member in the family may have a history of having a panic disorder
abnormalities in the brain
transition, death of a loved one
Treatments for Panic Disorder
Since Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, it requires lifetime attention and treatments, even after symptoms have subsided.
A personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends a family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Dopamine Over activity
- researchers discover excess amount of receptors for dopamine after examining deceased schizophrenic patients
-they speculate that such high levels could intensify brain signals in schizophrenia, creating positive symptoms such as hallucinations and paranoia
-Glutamate has also been found to be in excess in schizophrenic people, and drugs that interfere with these receptors can produce negative symptoms
Abnormal Brain Activity
-modern brain scanning techniques have revealed people with chronic schizophrenia have abnormal brain activity
-abnormally low activity in frontal lobes
-when people are hallucinating, brain activity is high in thalamus and amygdala
-increased fluid-filled area and a corresponding shrinking of cerebral tissue in people with schizophrenia
cognitive behavioral therapy
helps the person suffering from panic attacks to allow the person to recognize their change in thought patterns. This will allow them to identify where they get troublesome feelings.
Paxil and Zoloft
Xanax, Ativan, Klonopin
beta blockers, help with anxiety
deep breathing, yoga, positive visualization, meditation
Atypical antipsychotic medications include:
Clozapine (Clozaril, Fazaclo ODT)
Typical antipsychotic medications include:
-identical twins have a 1 in 2 chance of becoming schizophrenic if one of them has it
-studies show adopted children with a biological parent with schizophrenia are more susceptible
-identical twins have a 1 in 2 chance of becoming schizophrenic if one of them has it
-studies show adopted children with a biological parent with schizophrenia are more susceptible
-1-in-100 odds of any person's being diagnosed with schizophrenia become 1 in 10 among those whose sibling or parent has the disorder
-some can inherit a predisposition to the disorder
-researchers are unable to pinpoint the exact genes responsible, but believe nutritional and oxygen deprivation at birth may help to "ignite" these genes
main symptom- chronic pain that lasts for several months and limits a person's work, relationships, and other activities.
In the past, this disorder was thought to be related to emotional stress
Experiencing pain or other symptoms in a way that increases the level of pain
Pain and worry create a cycle that is hard to break.
People who have a history of physical or sexual abuse are more likely to have this disorder
However, not every person with Somatoform disorder has a history of abuse
Emotional well-being affects the way in which pain is perceived.
Laboratory work and radiologic scans (MRI, CT, ultrasound, x-ray), are done to determine possible causes of the pain.
Somatoform pain disorder is diagnosed when these tests do not reveal a clear source of the pain.
Social skills training
Vocational rehabilitation and supported employment
The most common treatments are a combination of techniques
A typical treatment for schizophrenia would include one or more:
One or more than one medication
"Get back out there"
Humanistic therapy aims to emphasize an individual's potential for self-fulfillment and to boost self awareness and self acceptance.
Unlike psychoanalysis, humanistic therapies focus on the present and future and focus on conscious thought. These therapies aim to promote self-acceptance by getting people to take responsibility for their thoughts and actions. Humanistic therapies focus more on promoting self growth than curing the illness.
Humanistic therapy, as well as psychoanalysis, are types of insight therapy. These therapies use techniques in attempt to increase the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses. This helps improve the status of the patient's psychological functioning. Insight therapists believe that a majority of psychological problems fade away as they gather insight into their unresolved and unconscious conflicts.
Counter conditioning - A technique derived from from classical conditioning that pairs the trigger stimulus with a new more positive response that can't coexist with fear, such as relaxation.
Systematic desensitization - A technique commonly used to treat phobias that associates a client's relaxed state with a gradually increasing anxiety-provoking stimulus.
Aversion therapy - The addition of a negative, unpleasant response to a behavior that could be potentially harmful. This therapy aims to teach a person to associate a negative response with the harmful behavior so that the person will be more likely to avoid that behavior. This can help people kick bad habits such as drinking alcohol or nail biting, but is usually temporary as people no longer associate the artificial, negative response to their bad habit.
Operant conditioning - Operant conditioning reinforces desired behaviors with rewards and doesn't provide reinforcement for undesired behaviors, punishment may even be given. A token economy can be created in order to further encourage proper behavior. This token is usually some sort of fake currency that is earned when the patient demonstrates proper behavior, giving up on past bad behavior. Operant conditioning helps teach patients to coexist more positively with the outside world.
Researchers have pinpointed a few possible warning signs:
- a mother whose schizophrenia was severe and long lasting
-birth complications, often involving oxygen deprivation and low birth weight
-separation from parents
-short attention span and poor muscle coordination
-disruptive or withdrawn behavior
-poor peer relations and solo play
According to researchers, no environmental causes have been discovered that will invariably or even with moderate probability, produce schizophrenia in persons who are not related to a person with schizophrenia
Cognitive therapy focuses on teaching people more adaptive ways of acting and thinking. This form of therapy is centered around the idea that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. Cognitive therapies also assume that our thinking comes from how we feel, that self blame and vague descriptions of traumatic events are often an inseparable part of vicious cycles of mental illnesses.
People with mental illnesses tend to interpret suggestions as criticisms, disagreements as dislike, praise as flattery, and friendliness as pity. Cognitive therapy aims at changing how people view interactions with others in order to make themselves feel better about themselves and others.
Causes of Depression
death or loss
Treatments for Depression
Suffered from depression throughout her life
During her first royal tour she had panic attacks whenever she moved destinations.
Her panic attacks are where she cries and shakes uncontrollably
He has to force himself not to step on every chewing gum stain when walking and he also fights temptations to walk through a doorway several times
Atypical medications are newer medications and are typically preferred over typical medications. Atypical medications pose a lower risk of debilitating side effects than do typical medications.
Side effects of atypical antipsychotic medications include:
high blood cholesterol
Although typical antipsychotics are less expensive than newer, atypical medications, especially the generic versions, (which can be an important consideration when long-term treatment is necessary) these medications have frequent and potentially significant neurological side effects.
These typical side effects may include:
Possibility of developing a movement disorder, which may be irreversible
It takes a few weeks after starting a medication to notice symptom improvements.
The goal of medications is to use the lowest possible dosage to effectively control the symptoms.
Other medications also may be helpful, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications.
More Information About Medications
-Distrust and suspicion of others
-Believing that others are trying to harm them
-Lack of interest in social relationships
-Limited range of emotional expression
-Inability to pick up normal social cues
-Appearing dull/indifferent to others
-Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs, or behaviors
-Perceptual alterations, such as those affecting touch
-Discomfort in close relationships
-Flat emotion/inappropriate emotional responses
-Indifference to others
-"Magical thinking" - believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
-Believing that messages are hidden for you in public speeches or displays
-Fantasizing about power, success, & attractiveness
-Exaggerating your achievements or talents
-Expecting constant praise & admiration
-Failing to recognize other people's emotions & feelings
-Constantly seeking attention
-Extreme sensitivity to others' approval
-Excessive concern with physical appearance
-Impulsive & risky behavior
-Fear of being alone
-Hypersensitivity to criticism or rejection
-Extreme shyness in social situations
-Excessive dependence on others
-Submissiveness towards others
-A desire to be taken care of
-Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment
-Urgent need to start a new relationship when one has ended
-Preoccupation with orderliness and rules
-Desire to be in control of situations
-Inability to discard broken/worthless items
group of mental health conditions in which a person has along-term pattern of behaviors, emotions, and thoughts that is very different from his or her culture's expectations.
Making a DSM Diagnosis
"Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around him or her."
A Drug addiction is a complex illness that most people misunderstand. Many people think that those who are addicted to drugs lack willpower, or can change in an instant.
Different drugs can change the brain in different ways, and can make quitting difficult for any person, no matter how willing they are.
To make a diagnosis, a clinician must select disorders from the diagnostic classification that best fit the signs and symptoms the patient is experiencing.
Each diagnostic label has a diagnostic code.
The diagnostic codes are used by institutions and agencies for data collection.
These codes are derived from the
International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification.
This coding system is used by all health care professionals in the United States.
Signs and symptoms of drug abuse vary, sometimes it is hard to tell, especially in teenagers, the difference between moodiness and drug use. In some cases, one may be able to tell that a someone is abusing a drug based on the physical and behavioral signs and symptoms associated with the drug. As usage becomes more frequent in an individual, changes in physical appearance or behavior may become more prominent. Some symptoms include: Feeling like you have to use the drug regularly, feeling as if you need the drug to deal with your problems, and focusing more time and energy on obtaining the drug.
DSM Diagnostic Criteria
For each disorder there are diagnostic criteria.
Diagnostic criteria are the symptoms that must be present and the symptoms that must NOT be present in order for an accurate diagnosis.
Diagnostic criteria also provide an outline of each disorder to better identify the disorder that a patient may have.
Diagnostic criteria is a guideline for clinicians in diagnosing patients.
DSM Descriptive Text
The system in which disorders are described in the DSM-5.
The headings include: "Diagnostic Features"; "Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis"; "Subtypes and/or Specifiers"; "Prevalence"; "Development and Course"; "Risk and Prognostic Factors"; "Diagnostic Measures"; "Functional Consequences"; "Culture-Related Diagnostic Issues"; "Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues"; "Differential Diagnosis"; and "Recording Procedures."
A drug addiction is not caused by one thing alone. There are many contributing factors, that lead to a drug addiction. It all begins when a person decides to do a drug for the first time. This decision can be brought about in many different circumstances, a person could be peer pressured, grow up in an abusive family, be surrounded by drug users in their neighborhood, really anything, causes for this choice will vary from person to person. The next phase in developing an addiction is the body's adaptation to the substance. To get a desired feeling a person takes a drug at a certain amount. The body and brain begin to adapt to the new substance and soon the body requires more of it it in it's system. to achieve the same feeling. The drug abuser now has an addiction.
Therapies are typically divided into two separate categories,
Psychotherapies use psychological techniques to assist someone trying to overcome personal difficulties. These therapies are typically used for learning-related disorders such as phobias.
Biomedical therapies may use medication or a medical procedure to help someone overcome a biologically influenced disorder, such as schizophrenia.
Carl Rogers developed the widely used humanistic therapy technique called client-centered therapy, which is still used today. This therapy uses techniques such as active listening in a safe, caring, and accepting environment that can further the promote the client's growth.
Through active listening, a therapist listens to and echoes what a client is saying, without being judgemental and without over analyzing what the client says.
Client-centered therapy aims to create a positive, accepting environment so that people may come to accept themselves and feel valued.
Depends on which personality disorder the person has
Like anything related to drug addiction, the treatment for an addiction also varies from person to person. Treatment is most defiantly not simple or easy. Based on the severity of the addiction and harmfulness of the withdrawal symptoms different methods are applied to help the addict. An addict can't just immediately stop using the drug and be cured and addiction free a couple days later, it does not work like that. Most patients will require long-term care and rehabilitation. Many medicines and therapies are available to help those in need .
In general, treatment includes:
Cognitive behavioral therapy: Helps patient identify unhealthy, negative beliefs and replace them with healthy, positive ones.
Family therapy: Patient and family explore conflicts, communication and problem solving to help cope with relationship problems.
Group therapy: Patient meets others with similar conditions, and may be helpful by teaching the patient to relate better with others.
Medications: Certain drugs can help with symptoms such as psychotic episodes, depression, or anxiety.
Also known as childhood disorders, developmental disorders are diagnosed when the child is of schooling age. Symptoms of the disorder first appear during essential developmental stages.
Angelina Jolie is a famous actress, screenwriter, film director, and author. In the late 1990's, she voluntarily went into a Neuropsychiatric Institute because she claimed suicidal and homicidal thoughts. It was later reported that she had no intention or plan to carry them out. Angelina was given a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
Cory Monteith was a beloved actor and part of one of the greatest shows ever created: "Glee", he also had a problem with drug addiction in his life. At age 12 his parents went through a divorce, to which he began to act out. He began to smoke marijuana and drink alcohol. He developed bad habits and entered rehab at age 19. When he got cast on the show "Glee" his struggled still continued on, and unfortunately, his usage of drugs is what took his life.
Lack of nonverbal communication skills
Failure to establish friendships
Lack of interest in sharing enjoyment with others
Lack of empathy
Delay in verbal skills
Repetitive use of language
The need for routine
"Borderline Personality Disorder." NIMH RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Schizotypal Personality Disorder." Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Personality Disorders: MedlinePlus." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine,
n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
"New Health Guide." Famous People with Borderline Personality Disorder. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
Lack of inborn social skills
Lack of empathy
Dislike in change of routine
Unable to pick up on vocal cues to emotion
Avoid eye contact
One sided conversations, usually on their favorite subjects
After finding hypnosis to be unreliable, Freud turned to free association. In free association, patients are encouraged to focus on their thoughts and feelings and to say aloud anything that comes to mind. The therapist can then interpret what the patient has said and what the patient might have been less willing to say.
Through dream analysis, Freud believed one could find the source of inner conflicts by analyzing dreams to find the latent content - the hidden meaning - of a dream.
A new discovery made by scientists at the University of Cambridge may help answer some questions, and possibly lead to new treatments. Science Daily reads: "The new findings, published in today's edition of Science, may lead to more targeted treatments for addiction and other compulsive behavior disorders with fewer side effects than current alternatives.". The rest of the article talks about scans and tests run on certain parts of the brain, and that there are certain changes in the brain that predate drug use, and it links impulsive behavior to drug use. Further research into this could reveal much more about the brain and drug addiction.
Difficulty paying attention to details
Failure to complete tasks
Difficulty partaking in quiet activities
"Addiction Breakthrough May Lead To New Treatments." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 05 Mar. 2007. Web. 08 Jan. 2014. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070302082810.htm>.
"Drug Addiction." Symptoms. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/drug-addiction/basics/symptoms/CON-20020970>.
"Drug Dependence: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001522.htm>.
"DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction." National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014. <http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction>.
The exact cause of autism is unknown, but research has pointed to genetic factors, metabolic factors, and problems occurring at birth
There is no known cause of Asperger's, however; the disorder tends to run in families.
The cause has a strong genetic component. Researchers believe genes control neurotransmitters which are in those with ADHD
Smoking or drinking during pregnancy.
Behavioral therapies were derived from the work of Ivan Pavlov and classical conditioning. Behavioral therapies aim to eliminate issues by focusing on eliminating the symptoms of an illness rather than trying to find insight to the illness. This is done through various learning techniques that are meant to replace abnormal symptoms with constructive behaviors.
Speech therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy
Medicines: only help with related conditions and problems
Promote a calming, familiar environment
Stimulants: focus on thoughts and ignore distraction
Nonstimulants: increase attention span
Signs and Symptoms
Albert Einstein: Asperger's
Jim Carrey: ADHD
"Dissociative Identity Disorder: Latest Medical Breakthroughs." Newsmax. Newsmax Media, Inc, 26 Oct. 2010. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder): Signs, Symptoms, Treatment." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
English, Marianne, and Chaffin Travis. "15 Celebrities with Mental Health Disorders." Discovery Fit&Health. Discovery Communications LLC, n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2014.
"Glossary of Psychological Terms." American Psychological Association, n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
Jim Carrey: funny guy, has always struggled with ADHD. Since childhood, Carrey was a restless child, always on the go. In school, his teachers always commented that he was disruptive and often could not sit still. "I'm like a caged animal," Carrey said regarding his ADHD.
Brain Stimulation Therapies
"Behavior Therapy." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
Meyers, David G. "Therapy." Psychology. 9th ed. Holland: Worth, 2010. 637-69. Print.
Khoddam, Rubin. Psychotherapy. Digital image. Psych Connection. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2014.
Anestis, Michael D. Psychotherapy. Digital image. Psychotherapy Brown Bag. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2014.
"Categories of Psychiatric Medications." - The Medications. Stranford School of Medicine, n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
"Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)." Definition. Mayo Clinic, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
Einstein was known for having delayed language development and educational slowness during his childhood. Close family also commented on his lack of empathy and occasional nativity.
Tim Burton: Autism
constant feelings of sadness
feelings of hopeless and helplessness
difficulty with relationships
decrease in energy
loss or gain of weight
decrease in decision making abilities
complaining of physical pains often
very sensitive and fearful with the thought of or reaction to failure
threats to run away from home, or actually do run away from home
low self-esteem, feel useless
increase in tears, random tears
"Depression: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
Tim Burton was always known for being highly intelligent, but lacked natural social skills. He had application and dedication, and excelled imaginatively.
"Autism Treatments -- Therapies, Medications, and Alternatives." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"Asperger's Syndrome-Home Treatment." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Nonstimulant ADHD Drugs: Uses, Types, Side Effects, and More." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
What is obsessive compulsive disorder?
OCD is an illness that affects thoughts and actions and is believed to be rooted in a biochemical imbalance of the brain. OCD is classified as an anxiety disorder. This illness is characterized by recurrent and disturbing thoughts, called obsessions, and repetitive, ritualized behaviors that the person feels driven to perform, called compulsions.
Signs & Symptoms of OCD:
"Children's Hospital of Wisconsin." Overview of Mood Disorders. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Depression Treatment." : Therapy, Medication, and Lifestyle Changes. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
Treatments & The most popular treatment?
Handle Life Problems
Setting Healthy Boundaries
-Differs between people
-Some people more prone to mania, some to depression
- Severe mood swings
-Easy irritated and irritable
Fear of Germs/Dirt
Fear of making a mistake
Dwelling on relationships
Need for Order/Organization
Fear of violence
* treatments are taken almost as if it were a trial and error. one treatment may not be as effective as others, or not effective at all
Nothing is known for sure what causes schizophrenia.
hyperactive, upbeat mood
optimistic, racing mind over-talkative, little need for sleep,
-Returns to normal or depressive
-Hypomania is a less dramatic, less severe version of mania
As a child Demi was bullied. Because of this she had self-image issues and being in the public eye made her problems even worse. Demi suffered from severe depression, she turned to drugs and alcohol. Also, she was anorexic and bulimic and harmed herself by cutting her wrists. Eventually Demi went to rehab and now she is a advocate stopping teen bullying and preventing what happened to her.
Causes of OCD:
-not commonly helped with antidepressants
- feels hopeless, sad, empty
-inability to experience pleasure
-appetite, weight changes
-concentration and memory problems
-feeling worthless or guilty
-thoughts of death or suicide
-mixed episodes have both symptoms of depression and mania
•Bipolar I disorder - Mood swings. Manic episodes can be severe and dangerous.
•Bipolar II disorder - less severe than bipolar I. Elevated mood, irritability and some changes in your functioning, but generally normal. Hypomania instead of Mania. Periods of depression last longer than periods of hypomania.
•Cyclothymic disorder - less severe form of Bi-Polar
~Psychotherapy and Medication are the two most popular treatments
medications: prescriptions like antidepressants, which sometimes cant be felt doing its job until 6 to 8 weeks. Often, the patient has to try 2 or 3 different medications to find the right one.
psychotherapy: cognitive (most popular), behavioral, interpersonal, and rational emotive therapies, or just local resources in the community (walk in clinic, family, friends, church, counselors, or even therapists.
~theory that the majority of what feel is influenced by our thoughts. depression is thought out to be a result of mistaken thoughts and beliefs.the therapy is to help fix these thoughts
"Depression Treatment | Psych Central." Psych Central.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
OCD involves problems in communication between the front part of the brain and deeper structures. These brain structures use a chemical messenger called serotonin
-avoid high stress
-monitor your moods
-make healthy sleeping, eating, and
Treatments for OCD:
Treatment for OCD is a difficult topic. Many of those with the illness want help but it's often prolonged due to the fact that people hide their symptoms. If someone were to come out saying they needed help, and a possible treatment, it's very difficult to find doctors that could help treat this illness effectively. People are often misdiagnosed when it comes to OCD, relating back to the fact that it's hard to find local doctors who can treat this illness.
Since depression is such a complex disorder with multiple possible causing factors, i believe one day depression will be more understood and for each factor, there will be a medication to cover it. Also, an antidepressant that works for everyone and covers all aspects of the disorder the first try will be created, a depressed person does not have 3 months to spare SAFELY without medication, which is why the antidepressant needs to work the first try.
As OCD is studied more, I believe they will be able to find a reasonable answer to help those that are suffering from the dreaded illness as it is not yet available.
Mayo Clinic Staff. "Bipolar Disorder." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 8 June 2012. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
Melinda, Smith, and Jeanne Segal. "Bipolar Disorder Signs & Symptoms." Mania & Bipolar Depression. N.p., Dec. 2013. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
People Magazine. "Bipolar Celebrities." People. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
Causes of Bi-Polar Disorder
-no single cause
- some people get it from genetics
-abnormal thyroid function,
-circadian rhythm disturbances,
-and high levels of stress
Famous Celebrities with Bi-Polar Disorder
Vincet Van Gogh
"10 Signs You May Have Obsessive-compulsive Disorder." Fox News. FOX News Network, n.d. Web. Jan. 2014.
"Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)." : Symptoms, Behavior, and Treatment. N.p., n.d. Web. Jan. 2014.
"Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, OCD." NIMH RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. Jan. 2014.
"Obssessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms and Treatment." Obssessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms and Treatment. N.p., n.d. Web. Jan. 2014.
"What Is OCD, or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?" International OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. Jan. 2014.
Famous People with OCD:
The host of "Deal or No Deal" is one of the most public OCD sufferers in the entertainment industry. His makeup artists are required to use fresh sponges every day, he never touches handrails, and he won’t put money in his hands until after it’s been washed. Howie’s extreme fear of germs kicks off endless, circular loops of panic around the possibility of getting a disease from any surface. If you meet him, you’ll notice that he refuses to shake hands, preferring a slightly more hygienic fist-bump.
When she went into treatment for struggling with anorexia, bulimia, and cutting herself, the doctors diagnosed her with Bi-Polar Disorder.
She said looking back at her life she can see how she relates to this disorder.
She told People Magazine that "There were times when I was so manic, I was writing seven songs in one night and I'd be up til 5:30 in the morning"
She continues to get treatment, but she says she feels she is "in control now"
From shaving her head in 2007, her impulsive behavior, hypersexuality, and poor judgement led the world to suspect something was up.
Although she tries to keep her mental health problems quiet, the secret about her Bi-Polar diagnosis is out.
Doctors knew she was a manic depressive. And her past doctors and doctors that have learned more about Monroe's behavior have realized she had Bi-Polar disorder.
Her drug-use, mental health, emotional problems, and huge mood swings, doctors had diagnosed her.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
"An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for for weeks or more after a traumatic experience"
"Treatment of PTSD | Psych Central." Psych Central.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014.
"PTSD: National Center for PTSD." Prolonged Exposure Therapy -. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)." : Symptoms, Treatment and Self-Help. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Jan. 2014.
"Fictional Characters With Ptsd - Movies/film, Tv And Literature." My PTSD Forum. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014.
"Famous People with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." HealthRF. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014.
"Virtually any trauma, defined as an event that is life-threatening or that severely compromises the physical or emotional well-being of an individual or causes intense fear, may cause PTSD. Such events often include either experiencing or witnessing a severe accident or physical injury, receiving a life-threatening medical diagnosis, being the victim of kidnapping or torture, exposure to war combat or to a natural disaster, exposure to other disaster"
Examples of Some Causes:
War-time Trauma: Iraq/Afghanistan/Vietnam Wars
Terrorism: Boston Bombing/Attack on 9/11
Domestic Violence: Battered Wives/Children
Daily Violence: Police Officers
Treatments of the Disorder
Eduard was born on July 28th, 1910 in Zurich.As a child he was very sensitive and often ill. When Albert and his wife, Mileva, got divorced and split off, Eduard and his brother Albert Hans were greatly affected. As a child into his adulthood Eduard was highly intellectual but had little social skills. Age 20 is when he began to suffer from schizophrenia and was later placed into to a psychiatric sanatorium in Zurich. After the death of his mother, Eduard moved out of the sanatorium and into various foster families until he became very ill and died while being hospitalized in 1965.
One of the reasons why he keeps getting tattoos is because he is addicted to the pain of the needle
In the future
Doctors have been researching new remedies to prevent panic attacks.
Oral nutritional supplement called Inositol.
This supplement is to influence the action of serotonin, therefore reducing the severity and frequency of panic attacks.
More research is needed.
"Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder." Alternative Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014.
"Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
"Panic Attacks (Panic Disorder) Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Signs, Medication, Types - MedicineNet." MedicineNet. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014.
Due to extensive research done in psycho pharmacology, specific treatments are used to further help people diagnosed with mental illness. Drug therapy reduces the percentage of long term and involuntary hospitalization.
Anti psychotic Drugs: Medication used to treat illnesses/disorders like schizophrenia that severely alter thoughts and perceptions. There are two "types" of anti psychotic drugs, those that target the dopamine receptors(Example and those that target both the dopamine and serotonin receptors. (Example: Clozapine)
Anti anxiety Drugs: Medication used to control anxiety and agitation by depressing the central nervous system. (Examples: Xanax, and Ativan)
Antidepressant Drugs: Medication that is mostly used to treat depression but is also used for select cases of depression. These types of drugs alter the availability of specific neurotransmitters to balance out levels of norepinephrine and or serotonin. (Examples: Prozac, Zoloft, , and Fluoxetine.)
Mood Stabilizers: Medications like lithium that are used to calm mood swings, usually used for bipolar patients. About seven in ten people with bipolar disorder benefit from using lithium daily; their risk of suicide is one sixth as high while taking lithium than without it.
• Exposure Therapy- changes how the victims react to stressful memories
• Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)- trains the victim to react calmly to stressful memories by focusing on other things
• Medication- serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a type of antidepressant medicine
• Group Therapy- talking with others on their trauma can help the victim feel less alone
• Family Therapy- therapy that involves the victim’s whole family
• Brief Psychodynamic Psychotherapy- teaches victim how their past affects their feelings now, and ways of dealing with emotional conflicts
Exposure Therapy- consists of four main parts
Education- therapist talks victim through treatment, and helps them understand their symptoms
Breathing- therapist trains victim to relax through different breathing methods when thinking about trauma
Real-World Practice- therapist helps victim approach situations which are safe, but are related to trauma
Talking through trauma- Therapist helps victim repeatedly talk about trauma to help gain control of feelings and thoughts
Medication- can be taken during therapy and after
The most severe cases of PTSD usually involve depression, taking medication can lighten their mood enabling their therapy to be more effective
Electroconvulsive Therapy(ECT): A therapy that sends electrical current through a patient for roughly thirty to sixty seconds at a time. ECT is mostly used for extreme cases of depression. Reduces suicidal thoughts and after three sessions a week for two to four weeks, a majority of patients notice a positive change in their attitude and behavior.
Magnetic Stimulation: As an alternative to ECT, magnetic pulses from a wired coil penetrate the surface of the brain. Consecutive sessions for a few weeks most patients feel at least 50% better. Unlike ECT, Magnetic stimulation causes no seizures, memory loss, or other side effects.
Deep-brain Stimulation: A deeper form of stimulation that focuses on a certain cortex area that connects the frontal lobes to the limbic system. This procedure is used on patients that experienced no help from ECT or medications.
Whoopi Goldberg had an extreme phobia of flying after witnessing a middle air collision of two airplanes. This particular phobia, aerophobia, is relatively common. The crash left her with PTSD and required her to attend a type of exposure therapy program called “flying without fear.” Before her treatment she would travel by train, bus, and car to get anywhere she was needed, something that is difficult considering the amount of travel her job requires.
Mrs. Zemetres' Class