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Copy of Water Desalination

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on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Water Desalination

Water Desalination Supply Chain
Modeling and Optimization Malak T. Al-Nory & Stephen C. Graves

The Center for Clean Water and
Clean Energy @ MIT & KFUPM Desalination
Supply Chain Methodology Abstract Desalination ...Why? Terminology Outline Decision-making A network of nodes with the objective of matching demand with supply. A Java class represents a node
Each component can be used independently to optimize a process
Complex structures can also be built using these components as building blocks The desalination industry has been growing progressively in the last few decades
We propose a methodology to support decision making
Views the desalination process as a supply chain
Provides modular modeling components Why Do We Desalinate Water?
Desalination Technologies
Water Desalination Supply Chain
The Case of Saudi Arabia Water resource scarcity
Physical water scarcity by 1/5 of world’s population
Economic water shortage by 1/4 of worlds’ population
Population growth
Climate change Example:
For a process, a 45,000 ppm feed TDS to less than 250 ppm product TDS

TDS= Total Dissolved Solids
PPM= Part Per Million Design Stage
Planning and Operational Level Why? Desalinaiton .... How? Multi-Stage Flash
Process Reverse Osmosis Process Requirements and Performance Methodology by
1) Provide a set of investment related metrics for decision makers these metrics will be used to evaluate the different decision alternatives for the design of the water desalination supply chain.
E.g., environmental impact, output, cost, energy consumption, risk, .....
2) Provide decision makers with set of alternatives - (a graph) showing the relationship between investment and ROI. Then each point displayed in the graph it is an optimization problem! To formulate a decision Problem:
Nd.Choice(double min, double max)
assert(boolean condition)
Nd.max or Nd.min(double objective) To build the supply chain model:
Demand Side: industrial, agricultural, municipal, from 13 geographical regions in the country. Population expected to grow to 43 m by 2050
Supply Side: The country almost depleted the non-renewable ground water resource with more than 80% on agriculture with less 5% contribution to GDP. Saudi Arabia
Saudi National Water Strategy Since 1972, the Saline Water Conversion Corporation
In 2003, the Water and Electricity Company (WEC) was established to manage the purchase of water and electricity under Power and Water Purchase Agreements (PWPA) from private companies and the sale of the purchased water and electricity to SWCC and Saudi Electricity Company (SEC) respectively. Conclusion Some of the interesting directions involve
modeling the relationship between power and water in cogeneration and hybrid plants of more than one desalination technology.
modeling for multi-objective and multi-criteria planning in particular for cases when we have multiple decision makers each with different optimization criterion. To desalinate
Saline/Brine Membrane process
Thermal process
Chemical process “Water Desalination Supply Chain” has not been defined yet in the desalination literature! Source: FICHTNER, MENA Regional Water Outlook, Part II, Desalination Using Renewable Energy Desalination &National Development Plans Desalination Potential and CSP
In its 9th NDP 2010-2014 , building 14 plants (to its existing 30 plants)
NDP 2004- 2009:
Reduced consumption of water by 2.5%
Increased the number of dams and storage capacity by 7.5% and 10.2% respectively
Expanded the water networks and number of connections by 14.5% and 12.3% respectively

Municipal water demand: 2.4 b
Desalination covers 55% ~ about 1.3 b
With population growth the gap is expected to increase .... Crude oil costs is calculated at $3 per barrel!

Sustainable development requires the use of renewable energy sources such as CSP
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