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A Dividing Nation

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by

Mr. Dickman

on 12 April 2016

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Transcript of A Dividing Nation

A

Dividing
Nation
1820-1861

1820s
1840s
1819
11 free states
11 slave states
Missouri wants to join as a slave state

How does this tip the scales of power in the Senate?
BTW: Maine applies for statehood.
Admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
The Missouri Compromise
Senator Henry Clay
No Slave States allowed north of the line.
Slave permitted only in Louisiana Purchase land south of the line.
Missouri
Compromise

Wilmot Proviso and Sectionalism
Missouri Compromise Line
David Wilmot
Congressman, PA
Northerners

feared

slavery
would
extend
to the
west
.
Wilmot Proviso
ban slavery in any land won from Mexico
Only applies to Louisiana Purchase
1846 House passes bill but defeated in the Senate
...and the argument of slavery rolls on.
Sectionalism
loyalty to a state or section rather than the whole country
Views on Slavery
United by support of slavery (even non-slave owners)
Saw North as a threat to their way of life
South
North
Saw south as a foreign country were liberties and rights did not exist
Abolitionists demanded a ban on slavery
Slaveholders
Allow slavery in every territory
Return escaped slaves to their owners
Moderates
Extend Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean
Allow voters in each territory to decide on slavery.
Popular Sovereignty
Abolitionists
Slavery is morally wrong
Ban slavery throughout the entire country
1850s
Late
1850s

What about this land?
Civil
War

1848
Free Soil Party
The Free Soil Party
History:
Democratic and Whig party leaders won't take a stand on slavery.
Antislavery members of both parties meet in New York and formed the new party.
Free Soil Party's Main Goal
NO SLAVERY IN THE WEST
1848 Election
Former President
Martin Van Buren
Free Soil Party
Lewis Cass
Democratic Party
Whig Party
Zachary Taylor
End slavery in the Mexican Cession Territory
Supports Popular Sovereignty
Owned Slaves. Southerners thought he supported slavery.
Free Soil Party results.
Van Buren gets
10% of popular vote
.
13
Free Soilers won
seats in the Senate
.
Their success showed slavery is
still
a national issue.
Zachary Taylor Wins
Compromise
of 1850

The Issue
California
15 Slave States

15 Free States
Join as a
Free State
Might join as free states
What did the South fear?
Henry Clay
The Compromise of 1850
We'll be outvoted!
The South
Maybe we should secede.
California should enter as a free state.
NO!
Northern Congressmen
If we can't agree the union will fail!
No Compromise
Calhoun
Allow slavery!
We shall part in peace.
Daniel Webster
Massachusetts
Slavery is evil, separation will lead to a
civil war
.
Save the Union!
We must compromise!
Support a fugitive slave law.
The Compromise
Stephen Douglas
guides the compromise.
1. Allow California to enter as free state.
2. Divide Mexican Cession into New Mexico and Utah. Let voters decide.
3. End slavery in Washington D.C.
4. Include Fugitive Slave Law.
5. Border dispute between Texas and New Mexico is settled.
Northerner
Senator
Illinois
1852
Uncle Tom's Cabin published
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1854
Kansas-Nebraska Act Passed
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854
Republican Party
Republication Party
1858
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Abolitionist
Nebraska Territory
Stephen Douglas
Divide the territory = Nebraska / Kansas
Slavery = Popular Sovereignty
Seemed fair but...
Southern Leaders Supported the act -
slave owners would move across the border to Kansas.
Northern Leaders Outraged - Missouri Compromise banned slavery in that territory.
The Act would
repeal
the Missouri Compromise.
NEBRASKA
KS.
That's criminal!
Slavery will spread!
Kansas will soon be a slave state.
Opposed Slavery
Keep slavery out of the west
John C. Fremont
1856 Republican Presidential Candidate
Lost election but made a strong showing.
1/3 of popular vote
South worried national influence was fading
1858
- Challenged (D) Stephen Douglas for Illinois U.S. Senate seat.
Voter Appeal
"just folks"
Honest Abe
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
John Brown
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
John Brown
Republican
Democrat
Main Issue
Slavery
morally wrong
shouldn't extend to territories
nation should not divide over slavery
believe people should decide the slavery question
Popular Sovereignty
Raid on Harper's Ferry
Hoped slaves would revolt
Abraham
Lincoln
Stephen Douglas
Douglas wins Illinois Senate Seat
The Election of 1860
The Election of 1860
The Union is Broken!
The Union is Broken
Lincoln Speaks to the Nation
Lincoln Speaks to the Nation
The Republican Party
William Seward
Honest Abe
Winning Candidate
Democratic Party
Northern Democrats
Southern Democrats
Constitutional Union Party is formed.
Popular Sovereignty
Protect Slavery in the territories
Stephen Douglas
John Breckinridge
John Bell
Some Americans try to heal the split between North and South and keep the Union together.
The Results
The South Reacts
The South believed...
The President and Congress are
now set against our interests
---
especially slavery
With Lincoln as President..
South Carolina is first to secede. By Feb., 1861 six more follow.
A New Party Emerges
elected party candidate.
(Whig)
1860
March 4, 1861 - Lincoln takes office.
Lincoln's Inaugural Address
Two Goals:
Maintain the Union
He would take strong action to preserve the Union
Avoid War
He
promised
the South
NO WAR

unless
the
southern states start it
The Confederacy seize federal (Union) property in the South.
Lincoln must decide...
Do I let them take federal property?
The South will help him decide
Bombardment of
Fort Sumter
When Major Robert Anderson refuses to give in....
The Confederate troops open fire.
When Lincoln hears supplies are low.
Promises food
NOT
troops.
Confederates ask for the fort's surrender.
1860
March 1861
Lincoln's
Decision

Bombardment of Fort Sumter
April
1861


As the new President, how would you react to the the South seceding from the Union?

What goals would you set as President?
Federal forts are a threat!
T
he U. S. is a foreign power.
What are his choices?
Page 440
Why did the South believe they could secede?
Page 442
Page 443
Full transcript