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3.05 DNA Replication

Transcription and Translation
by

Jonah Hoppe

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of 3.05 DNA Replication

DNA is interconnected through adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. These four items create hydrogen bonds if connected to a correct base. For example, thymine connects to adenine and guanine connects to cytosine. However, since this is mRNA being created, adenine will connect to uracil not thyamine Transcription Translation Start Since the discovery of DNA in the nucleus in every cell, we wonder about how DNA can be replicated in such a way that can keep our identity as well as our characteristics. This can be described after learning about DNA and its very own characteristics along with transcription and translation which are the steps of DNA replication. These two steps of DNA replication can determine our characteristics along with our personalities. Because the DNA is to long and is inside the nucleus, it cannot go to the cytoplasm where the ribosomes and proteins are processed. Remember that DNA has the code for genetic information but does not process that information, that is why we need to create, by the process of transcription, a messenger called mRNA. After having the mRNA being created, the next task is to transfer the mRNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm and attract ribosomes with the same letter coding.The first step of replicating DNA is through the creation of mRNA. The DNA helicase (an enzyme) attaches to the DNA molecule and unzips the double helix by letting enzymes break the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. On top of that, complementary nucleotides floating in the nucleus form hydrogen bonds according to their pairs, thymine to adenine and guanine to cytosine. Because of the hydrogen bonds being more breakable the DNA is easier to “unzip” for replication. In conclusion, even replication we still keep our characteristics because of the stationary and unchanging method of replication where we keep the same genetic coding. Through the steps of DNA replication this can determine our characteristics along with our personalities. Through the continuation of studying genetics we can be able to cure disorders before the person is even born or alive today. Maybe even create a new race of human beings? DNA Replication What is DNA? Also, in the cytoplasm we find tRNA (transfer RNA). tRNA contains a 3 nucleic code on one side and a special protein on the other. In the cytoplasm, mRNA attracts ribosomes with the same 3 letter code of tRNA. The amino acids from tRNA bond with the mRNA creating a protein chain when a start codon or Methionine is reached. This chain will stop when the stop codon is reached. And this creates a completed protein. Terms DNA – DNA is located in the nucleus of every cell and stored in chromosomes. DNA is the genetic information or “code” that directions the construction of proteins.

mRNA - the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell.

RNA polymerase - A polymerase that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from a DNA or RNA template.

Base pairing - the formation of base pairs in DNA.

Transcription – Transcription is the first part of the protein creation process. It involves copying the DNA to mRNA and then shipping it out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.

Translation - the process by which polypeptide chains are synthesized, the sequence of amino acids being determined by the sequence of bases in a messenger RNA, which in turn is determined by the sequence of bases in the DNA of the gene from which it was transcribed.

tRNA - a class of RNA molecules that transports amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis.

rRNA - The RNA that is a permanent structural part of a ribosome.

Ribosomes - cytoplasmic particle composed of RNA and protein that is the site of protein synthesis.

Amino acids - a class of organic compounds containing the amino (NH2) and the carboxyl (COOH) groups.

Protein - Proteins are made up of amino acids bonded together. The amino acids can be combined in a variety of different arrangements, and a difference of only one amino acid in the protein chain can cause a big difference in the protein’s function (job). Proteins are used for structural support, storage, movement, signaling from one part of an organism to another, transporting other substances, increasing the rate of chemical reactions, and defense against foreign substances.
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