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The Respiratory System

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stayton thompson

on 26 February 2014

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Transcript of The Respiratory System

Main Function:
The Respiratory System is made to provide oxygen and expel carbon dioxide from the body.

The Respiratory System
The Respiratory System
Functions of the nose:
1. It serves as an air passage.
2. It warms and moistens inhaled air.
3. It's cilia and mucous membrane trap foreign matter, like dust.
4. It contains olfactory receptors, which sort out odors.
5. It aids in phonation and the quality of voice.
Functions of the Pharynx:
1. Serves as a passageway for air.
2. Serves as a passageway for food.
3. Aids in phonation by changing its shape.
In the lungs gases are exchanged between the alveoli and the blood through the capillaries.
Acute respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Tuberculosis (TB)
Diseases, Disorders & Defects
Buildup of the
Respiratory System

1. External Respiration: the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the air in the lungs and the blood within the capillaries.
Respiration Diseases,
Disorders and Defects

Diseases, Disorders & Defects
Gas Exchange & Transport
The Nose
The Pharynx
Within and above each nostril is the vestibule.
Behind the vestibule the outer wall is divided into three cavities.
The cavities divide into three airways: superior, middle, & inferior conchae.
These airways lead to the pharynx.
The rest of the cavity is lined with cilia.
Cilia- a hairlike, mucous membrane lining that sweeps matter out of the airways.
Nasal Cavity
The Nose
The roof of the mouth and the floor of the nose are formed by the palatine bone.
A flap of tissue, the soft palate, extends back into the nasal part of the throat and lifts upward when swallowing food.
Nostrils (anterior nares)-
the external entrance
of the nose.
Septum- separates the
nose into two cavities.
The Larynx
The Trachea
The Bronchi
The Lungs
Transport of Oxygen
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
Location: behind the nose
Function: it connects the nose to the mouth, allowing people to breathe through the nose.
The nasopharynx is the space above the soft palate at the back of the nose and connects the nose to the mouth, allowing a person to breathe through the nose.
The nasopharynx contains the adenoids, or phayngeal, tonsils.
the soft palate seperate the nasopharynx from the oropharynx.
The part of the pharynx that is between the soft palate and the upper edge of the epiglottis.
Location: behind the mouth
The oropharynx is lined with
mucous membranes.
The mucous lining changes slightly
to adapt when handling food or air.
The oropharynx contains the
faucial (or palatine) tonsils, as well as the lingual tonsils.
Function of the Larynx:
1. the larynx produces vocal sounds.
Vocal cords in the larynx are used to produce sound.
Short, tense vocal cords produce high notes.
Long, relaxed vocal cords produce low notes.
Paired Cartilages
Unpaired Cartilages
Functions of the Trachea:
1. the trachea provides an open passageway for air to enter the lungs.
The trachea is about 1 inch wide and 4 inches long.
The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a cylindrical tube that is the air passage extending from the pharynx and larynx to the main bronchi.
The bronchi are the two main branches of the trachea, that are the direct passageways to the lungs.
Function of the Bronchi:
1. It provides a passageway for air to and from the lungs.
Breakdown of the Bronchi
From the trachea, the bronchi branches off into the left and right bronchus.
The bronchi then subdivides into the bronchial tree, making bronchioles.
The bronchioles then terminate in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs supporting a network of capillaries.
Thyroid Cartilage
Cricoid Cartilage
largest in the larynx
forms the Adam's Apple
larger in men
contributes to a deeper voice
covers the entrance of the larynx.
acts as a lid
stops food from entering the trachea.
lowermost in the larynx.
shaped like a ring.
Shaped like pyramids.
Point of attachment for the vocal cords.
Very small
No direct function
Very small
Location: behind the larynx.
Function: it serves as a common passageway for food and air.
At the base of the Laryngopharynx is the esophagus, which separates food and air, and directs it to where it should be.
The Laryngopharynx is the bottom region of the pharynx in which food and air pass through.
The mucous membrane lining the trachea contains cilia.
Cilia are small hairlike organelles that sweeps foreign matter out of the passageway of the trachea.
In the Trachea
Once oxygen diffuses into the blood 95-98% goes into red blood cells which contain hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin contains 4 iron atoms and takes in 4 oxygen atoms.
There are about 250 million hemoglobin in red blood cells
When the oxygenated blood reaches body tissues, the oxygen releases from the hemoglobin, due to the high oxygen concentration in the cell.
The oxygen then travel to other cells with low oxygen concentrations.
Once Carbon diffuses into the blood 7% dissolves into the plasma, 23% combines with hemoglobin, and 70% is carried in the blood as biocarbonate ions (HCO ).
Carbon Dioxide reacts with water in the plasma to form carbonic acid (H CO ).
The carbonic acid disassociates into bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions (H ):
Once blood reaches the lungs, the reaction reverses.
The carbon then fuses out of the blood, and out of the body through the alveoli.
2 3
2 2 2 3 3
Oxygen moves from a high concentration in the lungs to a low concentration in the blood.
Carbon dioxide goes from a high concentration in the cells to the blood and is sent through the alveoli to be exterminated.
The Nose- a projection in the center of the face that contains an external and internal portion.
2. Pharynx- a 5 inch tube that goes from the base of the skull to the esophagus; contains three portions, the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Larynx- a structure that is the upper end of the trachea, made of nine cartilages, three paired and three unpaired.
Trachea- a tube that is the air passageway from the pharynx and larynx to the main bronchi.
Bronchi- the two main branches of the trachea, which provide passage for air to the lungs.
Lungs- coned shaped organs of respiration lying on both sides of the heart.
The respiratory system consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and the lungs.
Mechanism of Breathing
Breathing is the process of moving air in and out of the lungs.
Diaphragm- a large, skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
The muscles between the ribs control the movement of the thoracic cavity during breathing.
Process of inspiration:
1. The chest expands, causing the ribs to go up and out.
2. At the same time your diaphragm flattens and pushes down on the abdomen.
3. Muscles in the abdominal wall relax, allowing room for the flattened diaphragm.

When inspiration occurs, the volume of the lungs increase.
It causes a reduce in pressure inside the lungs.
it makes the pressure inside the lungs less than outside the body
As a result, air from the atmosphere is inhaled into the body.
: inspiration is the process of taking air into the lungs.
: Expiration is the process of releasing air from the lungs.
Process of Expiration:
1. The diaphragm relaxes, and moves up.
2. The rib muscles relax and they contract.
3. The elastic tissues of the lungs recoil, deflating the lungs.
The volume of the lungs decreases.
This makes the air pressure in the lungs greater than the pressure outside of the body.
This forces air out of the lungs until the pressures are again equal.
Tidal volume- amount of air in a single inspiration and expiration.
Supplemental air- amount of air that can be forcibly expired after a normal quiet respiration.
Complemental air- amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above normal inspiration.
Residual volume (RV)- amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration.
Minimal air- small amount of air that remains in the alveoli.
Vital capacity (VC)- volume of air that can be exhaled after maximal inspiration.
Functional residual capacity- volume of air that remains in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration.
Total lung capacity (TLC)- maximal volume of the air in the lungs after a maximal inspiration.
Respiratory rate- the rate of respiration regulated by the center located in the medulla oblogata.
Individuals of different ages breath at different respiratory rates.
Respiratory Rates:
Newborn: 30-80 per minute
1st year: 20-40 per minute
5th year: 20-25 per minute
15th year: 15-20 per minute
Adult: 15-20 per minute
Respiratory Diseases:
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
: An inflammatory disease of the bronchi characterized by wheezing and a feeling of constriction in the chest. Inflammation of the airways causes airflow in and out of the lungs to be restricted. During an asthma attack, the muscles of the bronchial tree constrict and the lining of the air passages swell, reducing airflow.
Signs and Symptoms:
Increased pulse
Chest tightness
Lung hyperventalation
Chronic shortness of breath
Functions of the lungs:
1. Brings air into intimate contact with blood so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can be exchanged in the alveoli.
: A serous of membrane composed of several layers.
Pleura Layers:
1. Costal
2. Parietal
3. Pericardiaca
4. Phrenica
5. Pulmonalis
6. Visceral
The perietal pleura extends from the roots of the lungs and lines the thorax.
The visceral pleura covers the surface of the lungs and interlobar fissures.
The Pleural Cavity
: A space between the parietal and visceral pleura that contains a fluid that lubricates and prevents friction between the two layers.
The Thoracic Cavity
The central portion of the thoracic cavity, between the lungs, is the space called the mediastinum.
The mediastinum contains the heart and other structures
The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphram.
: The space within the walls of the chest, bounded below by the diaphram and above by the neck and containing the heart and lungs.
Structure of the Lungs
The lungs consist of elastic tissue filled with interlacing networks of tubes and sacs that carry air and with blood vessels carrying blood.
The broad inferior surface of the lungs that rests on the diaphram is the base.
The Base
The Apex
The pointed upper margain, rises from 2.5 to 5.0 cm above the sternal end of the first rib.
Lobes in the Lungs
Left Lung
Right Lung
The lungs are divided into lobes, the right lung has three lobes and the left lobe has two.
The left lung has an indentation, the cardiac depression, for the normal placement of the heart.
the average males left lung weighs about 570g.
The right lung consists of three lobes, the superior, middle, and inferior lobe.
The average males right lung weighs about 625g.
: The air cells where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place in the lungs.
At the end of alveolar ducts are a number of small sac-like structures called alveoli.
Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli and into the capillaries.
There are about 300 million alveoli in the lungs.
The nose contains four paranasal sinuses.
Paranasal Sinuses:
1. Frontal Sinus
2. Maxillary Sinus
3. Ethmoidal Sinus
4. Sphenoidal Sinus
are exchanged between the blood in tissue capillaries and the cells of the body.
Apnea: a temporary cessation of breathing.
Sleep Apnea: a cessation of the airways during sleep.
Obstructive Apnea
Central Apnea
Obstructive Apnea is caused by obstruction in the upper airway.
This condition mainly occurs in overweight middle-aged men.
It is associated with loud snorting, snoring, and gasping sounds.
Central Apnea is marked by absence of respiratory muscle activity.
People with this condition usually have excessive daytime sleepiness but do not snore or gasp in their sleep.
: An inflammation of the lungs caused by many different organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and chemical irritants.
Coughing with green mucous
Chest pain
Muscle aches
Abnormal breathing
Treatment is determined by the organism that caused it.
Bacterial is treated with antibiotics.
Increased fluids
Oxygen and respiratory treatments to remove secretions.
Most pneumonia patients have bacterial Pneumonia, since it is most common.
Pneumonia affects 3-4 million people each year in the US.
: A contagious diesease caused by the bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), which is carried in airborne particles called droplets.
About 10 million people in the US are infected with tuberculosis, and about 2 million die from it each year.
Chronic cough
Night sweats
Weight loss
Long term drug therapy (9-12 months)
A combination of antituberculosis agents.
Factors in the Spread of Tuberculosis
1. An infected person releases droplets through talking, coughing, sneezing, laughing, or singing. anyone who comes into contact with the infected person can inhale the droplets, possibly contracting TB.
2. Infection with HIV makes it difficult for the body to control Tuberculosis bacteria. as a result, most HIV-positive people who catch TB progress to active TB.
3. Crowded living conditions, such as prisons, nursing homes, homeless shelters and other cramped spaces have a high risk at TB spreading.

Avoidance of known allergens and respiratory irritants.
Long term medicine: glucocorticoids
Rescue medicine: bronchodilators
Disorders That Affect the Pleural Space:
: When the lung collapses due to air accumulating in the pleural space.
3 types of Pneumothorax:
1. Open- Atmospheric air flows directly into the pleural cavity, collapsing the lung.
2. Closed- Air enters the pleural space from within the lungs, increasing pleural pressure and preventing lung expansion.
3. Tension- increased pressure in a lung, causing the lung to collapse.
Signs and Symptoms:
shortness of breath
sharp pain
respiratory distress
possible surgery
oxygen therapy
chest tube placement
pain medication
: damaged blood vessels in the lungs causing blood to enter the pleural cavity that can result in the lung collapsing.
Signs and Symptoms:
Dusky skin color
Remove blood from pleural cavity
Chest tube
Blood transfusion
What causes it?
Chest trauma
Thoracic surgery
Pulmonary infarction
2. Internal Respiration: the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide
Defect of the Nose:
1. Cleft Palate: A congenital defect that occurs when the palatine bones fail to unite during fetal development.
it can be corrected with surgery
There are many diseases, disorders, and defects that occur in the respiratory system. They are caused either by under development before birth or by dangerous lifestyle choices.
picture: The human nose
Picture: The human lungs
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