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Transcript of Reading Comprehension
Activating prior Knowledge
Comprehending the Main Idea
Fisher, D., Frey, N. & Lapp, D. (2008) In a reading state of mind: Brain research, teacher modeling and comprehension instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Gunning, T. (2013). Creating Literacy Instruction for All Students. 8th Edition. Allyn Bacon: New York.
Snow, C. (2002). Reading for Understanding:Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension. RAND Reading Study Group, pp. xviii-xvi
Previewing the text is examining all parts of the text; such as the title, a summary, any contextual features (headings, sub-heading, bold words, etc.) to develop a sense of what they are about to read. Gunning (2013) states, "A preview can function as a blueprint for constructing a mental model of the text and also activates readers' schemata” (p.17). This strategy will work for most of my students; as it is a strategy that all good readers use before beginning any text. I think it will be especially helpful for my ELL students as it will help them identify potential problems they may encounter.
I will model how I preview a text for my students, and then when working in small groups I will observe students as they preview the text. I will keep anecdotal notes. Other times I will have students record their findings during a preview in their reader’s journal.
When we read, we are accessing all of the knowledge we have gained in our past experiences. Before students begin to read, we must help them unlock the knowledge they already have. As Fisher, Frey, and Lapp explain, "In other words, we compare what we already know with what we are reading" (p. 27). In teaching this strategy, it will help my entire class become actively engaged and connect with the text.
I will model how I access my prior knowledge for my students, We will create KWL charts whole group, then gradually, I will have students begin to fill the charts out independently, which I will collect and note the students thoughts and progress.
Comprehending the main Idea
Gunning (2013) defines main idea as, "a summary statement that includes the other details in a paragraph or longer piece; it is what all the sentences are about" (p. 320). Comprehending the main idea of the text is essential to developing a deeper meaning. This is a strategy that many of my past students have struggled with and is one that is critical for success on any standardized test. It will work with my students because it is taught in a step by step process. It will be especially helpful for my ELL students and struggling readers, when taught in small group.
I will begin teaching this strategy whole group using a whole to part graphic organizer in reverse order; going from part to whole. I will then observe students using the same organizer in small group instruction. Anecdotal notes can then be kept to monitor student progress.
My students love to play a game I call "Stump the Teacher". They become highly engaged when they can come up with questions relating to a concept we are studying; which I have to pause and look up the answer to. Students earn point for their teams if they can stump me; so, the questions they come up with are surprisingly thoughtful ones. Gunning (2013) supports this practice of mine in that he states, "It transform the reader from passive observer to active participant" (p. 341) This strategy engages all of my readers, including my struggling ones.
It take very little modeling of wondering aloud as we read a text aloud. Student will begin independent practice by recording their questions in their reader's journal; which is then collected and progress monitored.
Making inferences is a major shift in common core. Core Standards are requiring students to not only make inferences but support them with evidence from the text. It is a skill with which many of my students struggle. Gunning (2013) explains, "Although children have the cognitive ability to draw inferences, some do not do so spontaneously. A probably cause ...lack of background knowledge" (p.330) With repeated exposure to the skill all of my students will increase their level of proficiency with its use.
The teaching of this particular skill takes weeks of guided practice; and a gradual release into independent practice. It requires both small and whole group instruction, with constant feedback so students gain the confidence needed. Again, student progress can be monitored by simple anecdotal notes and formative assessments.
"...the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction
and involvement with written language. It consists of three elements: the reader, the text, and the activity or purpose for reading" (Snow, 2002).
Visualizing is creating a mental image of written language. As Fisher, Frey, and Lapp describe, "As we read, our brains create the proverbial 'movie in your mind'" (p. 47). In the age of technology and a media rich society, my students will be drawn to the use of this strategy. This strategy will be especially helpful with my students who are artistic learners.
I will provide my students with text that is rich in imagery; and model verbally and with pictures I have drawn. I will allow them to draw their own images and collect them, noting student progression in anecdotal notations.
Presented by Amie Robinson