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Interacting with the Immune System

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David Zhu

on 18 April 2010

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Transcript of Interacting with the Immune System

The first line The second line The Third line Skin Sweat and Oil Glands Tears Mucous Membranes Stomach Acids Enzymes Macrophage Neutrophil Natural Killer Cell Mast Cell Interferon Helper T-Cell Cytotoxic T-Cell B-Cell Plasma Cell Memory Cell Macrophage A macrophage englufs the virus, breaks it down and displays pieces of the protein spikes (antigen molecules) on its surface. This display signals that the virus is present in the body. There are many different versions of helper T cells and each recognizes a specific antigen. When a receptor on a helper T cell binds with a matching antigen on the macrophage, the helper T cell is activated and responds by secreting chemicals which alert the rest of the body. Cytotoxic T cells bind to the antigens displayed by the body cell. This stimulates the cytotoxic T cell to secrete perforin molecules that cause the infected cell to burst open. When the virus antigen binds to the matching antibody on a particular B cell, the activated B cell is stimulated to grow and divide into antibody-producing cells. A plasma cell may secrete as many as 2000 antibody melecules per second. These antibodies circulate in the blood and lymph, binding to virus antigens and may contribute to the destruction of the virus or block its harmful effects. If re-exposed to the same virus, these memory cells will quickly produce many plasma cells which secrete antibodies specific to the virus This cell ingests bacteria by phagocytosis, and then releases chemicals that kill both the neutrophil and the pathogen that is targeted These cells destroy virus-infected body cells and cancer cells by releasing chemicals that "poke holes" in the infected cell's membrane The mast cell initiates the inflammatory response, it secretes histamine which stimulates blood vessel dilation and blood flor to the damaged area. This can be called the "inflamatory effect". Interferons are specialized protens that are produced by infected cells, interferons protect other cells from becoming infected, they are non-specific so they are effective against a variety of viruses. Macrophages are "big eaters" they are in both the specific and non-specific lines of defence. They are found in the interstitial fluid and they destroy the pathogens through phagocytosis. (cellular eating) These both destroy bacteria Traps bacteria in respiratory passages Destroy bacteria Kills bacteria Blocks bacteria from getting into the body Interacting with the immune system The End
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