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Alicia T

on 15 March 2013

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Transcript of Rollercoasters

The History Of Roller Coasters The first roller coasters were made in Russia during the 1600's. They were made from either wood or ice, and the rider would slide down them, crash landing into a pile of sand. The beginnings of a more modern roller coaster started in America, with the Mauch Chunk Railway. The railway was used to transport coal during the day, and an amusement ride at night. In 1885, Lamarcus Thompson invented the first roller coaster using gravity In 1975, a man named Arrow designed the first circuit looping roller coaster, used as an example, many others then added double loops, triple loops and many other elements The Mauch Chunk Railway The first gravity-powered roller coaster Types Of Roller Coasters there are many different types of roller coasters There are many different types of roller coasters, depending on the design of the track. -Steel These are completely made out of steel and have cars with rows of two. Steel roller coasters include many inversions, they are the most common in the world -Suspension A suspension roller coaster is where the track is above the speeding car, They are unique because, during an inversion, the rider's perspective is 'flipped'. Cars usually hang with rows of three. -Wooden Wooden coasters can't do any inversions, this is because the cars have eight wheels instead of the twelve on steel coasters. -Steel Flying A steel flying coaster makes riders feel as if they've taken flight whilst their feet are in the air. The rides are generally more expensive and the roller coaster has advanced safety systems. -Steel Boomerang The steel boomerang, also called the 'front-back coaster' lets you go from one tower to another, then back to the previous towers backwards, a bit like a boomerang. The Physics Behind Roller Coasters Potential Energy Potential energy is the energy that is built during the first hill of the roller coaster. It provides all of the energy that will be used during the ride. As the coaster descends, the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy something has whilst it is in motion. A roller coaster gains kinetic energy whilst descending because of gravity, the mass of the car and its riders. If a coaster ascends, the kinetic energy is transferred back into potential energy. Friction Friction is the resistance force that takes place when two objects move against one another.
On a roller coaster, friction ( including air resistance and the wheels on the track) is due to the loss of mechanical energy. Friction is also felt by the riders at the end of the ride as the coaster is braked and slowed down. Velocity Velocity is the rate of change of position of something that follows a direction tangent of its path. We call the rate at which velocity changes 'acceleration'. On a roller coaster, after a hill that descends, then ascends on a smaller hill, the velocity changes, due to this, we feel centripetal acceleration. Acceleration Acceleration, as said previously, is the rate at which velocity changes. Changes in acceleration affect the thrill of a roller coaster immensely. At the bottom of a hill, the acceleration reaches its fastest, and at the bottom of a dip, riders feel compressed. Gravity Gravity is the force that attracts all matter to the center of the earth. It accelerates a roller coaster through loops and twists and is needed to detach a car from a lift hill to begin its descent down a hill. Acceleration Stress Acceleration stress is the result of high speed drops and abrupt surges in acceleration on a human body. It occurs during twists, turns and loops. Centripetal acceleration This type of acceleration is directed towards the center of a loop. Riders experience a pushing force and may feel compressed. This feeling is called 'centrifugal force' where the body's inertia tries to resist the car's change in direction, Luckily, the rider's are strapped inside, otherwise they'd continue in the straight path the coaster was following ... Types Of Acceleration Positive acceleration Riders feel heavy in their seats, usually when descending downwards suddenly Negative acceleration Riders feel momentary weightlessness in their seats Transverse acceleration Riders feel an increased pressure because their weight is being supported, this happens during sideways acceleration Skills Needed And Considerations There are many skills involved in creating and inventing roller coasters, a few are engineering, programming, psychology and programming. Complex tracks, such as boomerang need to be made out of steel because they need more support Are Roller coasters for everyone ? The reason as to why many people love roller coasters is solely down to the thrill they get from them. Roller coasters also release epinephrine, a stress hormone released during adrenaline rushes. However, many don't really fancy them because they are scared of falling or don't like heights. Some people can't go on roller coasters, such as people with heart problems, back problems and pregnant women. People with heart conditions can't ride because roller coasters increase heart rate, which is dangerous for people with heart conditions. Those with back problems may aggravate the problem because of the twists and turns. Pregnant women can't ride roller coasters because the acceleration would apply pressure to the baby and could harm it, and the fast stops and starts may lead to placental abruption Thank you Thank you for listening to the presentation
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