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Transcript of History Timeline
Colonists responded with protests and boycotts. 1774: First Continental Congress The first Continental Congress meets to discuss Britain policies. It is decided that trade with Britain will be suspended. 1775-1783 1775: Battle at Lexington British General Thomas Gage moves to destroy rebel supplies at Concord. 'Minutemen' respond and attack redcoats, forcing them to retreat back to Boston. July 4th, 1776: The Declaration of Independence The Continental Congress Signs the Declaration of Independence, declaring war on Britain. The Revolutionary War The Constitution Era: 1781-1789 1781: The Articles of Confederation First form of government where power is placed in the hands of the state's rather than in a strong central government. The Constitution Era 1783: Peace Treaty Signed With Britain After 8 years of war the colonies defeat the most powerful military in the world. 1786: Debate between Federalists and
Anti-Federalists Escalates -Federalists believed the Articles of Confederation didn't create a strong enough government; Anti-Federalists feared a stronger government would pose problems to civil-liberties. Shay's Rebellion: 1786-1787 In 1786 a large number of farmers and small property owners were unable to pay their debt. They looked to the government for relief, but the government rejected their call for aid. Armed farmers prevented officials from collecting debts, and in 1787 the Shay's led a march to Springfield, Massachusetts to obtain weapons. The state government stepped in and put down the revolt. 1789: US Constitution ratified The U.S. Constitution was ratified, receiving the necessary 9/13 votes from states. The Constitution created a stronger central government and a national currency as well as fixed many areas the Articles of Confederation had failed at. The New Nation Era: 1789-1800 The New Nation 1789: George Washington becomes President Faced challenges of...
-Building an economy
-Preserving National Independence
-Creating a stable political system Washington's Presidency 1789 1797 1791: Whiskey Rebellion Protest against the tax imposed on whiskey to help pay off the debt created by the revolutionary war. Resulted in an armed march on Pittsburgh which caused national government interference. 1797: George Washington's Farewell Speech Washington rejected a third term as president due to increasing resentment from Anti-Federalists. He gave advice to the country in his retirement speech; he stated that the country should avoid having political parties, also that the US should stay neutral in foreign affairs. The Election of 1796 Adams (Federalist) vs. Jefferson (Anti-Federalist) Adams 71 electoral votes
Jefferson 68 electoral votes Adams = President
Jefferson = Vice President Government not agreeing with itself. 1791: The Bill of Rights
The Anti-Federalists believed the Constitution would restrict the freedom of the people, so the Federalists passed along with it the Bill of Rights. These rights include the freedom of religion, the right to bear arms, and the right to a public trial. 1797: XYZ Affair
During the French Revolution President John Adams sent 3 men over to France for peace negotiations. The emissaries were told unless they pay bribes they would be unable to meet the French government. This caused an uproar against France which led to the Quasi-War. Quasi-War 1798- 1800 Naval war fought with France. Caused by the XYZ affair and several other factors, including France seizing American ships. War ended with the Treaty of Mortefontaine. Alien and Sedition Acts: 1798
To lessen opposition from the Democratic-Republicans, the government under Adams passed the Alien Act and the Sedition Act. The Alien Act authorized the president to be able to expel aliens whom he judged to be a danger to the country.
The Sedition Act made it illegal to foul talk the government. Adam's Presidency: 1797-1801 1820 Jefferson Presidency: 1801-1809 The Election of 1800 The Jeffersonian Era: Jeffersonian Era: 1801-1815 Election between Federalist John Adams & Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson. The election created a tie between Jefferson and his running mate, Adam Burr. Election then went to the House of Representatives, and the system made by the Constitution almost failed due to the House not being able to vote in a President. The election fell on James Bayard, a member of the House of Representatives who represented Delaware. Bayard was named a Federalist, however, he voted against his political party because he felt that if the Federalist view won, his state of Delaware might be swallowed up. The Louisiana Purchase: 1803 Jefferson as President purchased 828,000 square miles of barely explored lands, increasing the United States far west. 1803: Lewis and Clark Expedition
After the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson sent a company of men to explore and map the territory that had been purchased. The Burr Conspiracy: 1805
Burr in 1804 ran for governor of New York and lost. He blamed his failure on his political enemy, Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton made remarks against Burr causing the two to duel, illegally. Burr fatally wounded Hamilton and was then charged with murder. He fled to South Carolina before returning to Washington to finish his term as VP. In 1805 he left office and began conspiring to separate the Western United States from the United States and make a country he ruled. Burr was charged with treason and conspiracy, however, he was acquitted but his political career was destroyed. Madison's Presidency: 1809-1817 The War of 1812:
Tension built up between Britain and the US while Britain and France were at war. US was neutral in the conflict and sending supplies to both countries; however, both countries attacked US ships to stop them from delivering supplies to their enemy. Tensions eventually built up high and caused the US to go to war with Britain, so they invaded the British area of Canada. War of 1812 Hostilities ceased in 1814 when peace commissioners signed a treaty. 1807: The Embargo Act
During the war fought between France and Britain the US remained neutral; however, both countries were sinking US ships that were carrying supplies to the opposing nation. To address this growing tension Jefferson passed the Embargo Act, which cut off all foreign trade. The Act was eventually destroyed due to its negative effect on the US economy. Monroe's Presidency: 1817-1825 Jacksonian Era: 1820-1840 The Jacksonian Era: During the Jacksonian Era the balance of Republicanism and Democracy takes a shift towards Democracy. The Jacksonian Era was an attack on local elites and the recognition and installment of professional politician. Jackson petitioned for the 'common man', gaining popular majority. Until this era, those who were able to vote had been white, male taxing paying citizens. This era opened up the voting opportunities to many more by nearly all states providing the right to vote to all white males. Election of 1824:
Election mainly between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. Jackson received the greatest popular vote and electoral college votes; however, he did not capture enough to win the presidency, so (under the 12 amendment) the election went to the House or Representative. Another rival, Henry Clay, persuaded his supporters to vote for Adams, giving Adams the Presidency. Jackson was outraged and named it a 'corrupt bargain'. John Quincy Adam's Presidency: 1825-1829 Missouri Compromise: 1820 Missouri's becoming a state caused significant debate of whether it should be a slave state or a free state. The resolution was the Missouri Compromise, which stated that Missouri would become a slave state and the free state of Maine would be created. The Compromise also stated that slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of the 36 degree 30 degree north latitude line, and permitted south of the line. The Monroe Doctrine: 1823
Policy released by Monroe in 1823 which protected the US's power over the Western Hemisphere. The Doctrine stated that Europe could no longer colonize North or South America, and any attempt by a European power to impose its system of government on an independent state would be viewed as a threat. The Doctrine also stated that the US would not interfere with the affairs of the European nations. Expansion of Voting Rights: 1821
In 1821 changes were made to the Constitution allowing all adult white males that paid taxes or had served in the militia the right to vote. Previous to this, only white male taxing paying and landowning males could vote. Election of 1828: Jackson's second time running for President. This was the first election that candidates were selected by congressional caucus rather than national nominating conventions. The election again came down to Adams and Jefferson. Jefferson gained the support of the West and the South to win over Adams, winning 56% of the popular vote and 178 electoral votes compared to Adams' 83.
Jackson petitioned for the 'common man'. 1826:
By this time nearly all states allowed all white males to vote, with the exception of Louisiana, Virginia, and Rhode Island. Jackson's Presidency: 1829-1837 Jackson's Presidency: Overview
Jackson enhanced the power and prestige of the president. Campaigned for the 'common man'. Aimed to eliminate obstacles that prevented farmers, artisans, and small shopkeepers from earning a greater share of the nation's wealth. He declared that the president alone represented all the people of the US. Targeted monopolies, favoritism, and special privileges due to the fact that they made "the rich richer and the powerful more potent." Created the 'Spoils System'
Rotation of public offices as to not create corruption. Rewarded party loyalists. Jackson believed it helped achieve the nations republican ideals. Pre-Civil War: 1840-1860 Pre-Civil War Era: 1840-1860 Tensions between the North and the South rose when California wished to join the US. The debate was focused on whether California should be a free state or a slave state, as well as the territory acquired from Mexico. Through a long debate a compromise was created that stated the following:
California was to be a free state.
Territorial legislation would decide the question of slavery in Utah and New Mexico (popular sovereignty).
Slave trade was abolished in D.C.
Law for the return of run-away slaves. Compromise of 1850: The Revolutionary War Era: 1763-1775 1850 The Kansas-Nebraska Act: 1854 To encourage settlement in the West, congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Act determined that Kansas and Nebraska, which had both previously been free states due to the Missouri Compromise, be permitted to chose whether they became a slave state or free states with popular sovereignty (state votes). This Act caused a drastic number of both pro-slave citizens and anti-slave citizens to move to Kansas and Nebraska in hopes of gaining more support for their side. The Act caused the Whig party to dissolve, the Democratic Party to split into 2 (North and South), and the Republican Party to be created. Bleeding Kansas: 1854-1860 Following the Nebraska-Kansas Act violence erupted in the state of Kansas between Pro-slavery and Anti-slavery citizens. Killings, robberies, and violence were common in the state as each side attempted to win over Kansas. Kansas Vote: 1855 On May 30, 1855 Kansas held the vote as to whether it should be a free state or a slave state. 1500 men registered to vote, but 6,000 ballots were found due to pro-slavery men from Missouri jumping the boarder to vote. Pro-slavery won, and they set up a government in Kansas so that Antislavery men couldn't hold office.
Free Soilers (Anti-Slavery) drew up their own Constitution for Kansas that was passed by the Topeka government. Kansas now had 2 governments. Bleeding Sumner: 1856 Senator Charles Sumner delivered a speech in 1856 attacking those who where responsible for 'The Crime Against Kansas', attacking especially Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina.
Two days later Butler's nephew beat Sumner unconscious.
Kansas erupted into violence in response. In the Pre-Civil War Era the United States was revolving both around democracy and republicanism, but leaning more towards democracy. In this era man elected politicians passed Acts and Laws that stood against the wants of many people; however, these in this era many citizens were giving the right to vote between drastic issues, mainly slavery. The role of the individual in the election process grew during this era, as the idea of 'popular sovereignty' was growing and states were deciding whether they were free or slave.
Martin Van Buren (1837-1841)
William Henry Harrison (1841)
John Tyler (1841-1845)
James Polk (1845-1849)
Zachery Taylor (1849-1850)
Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)
Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)
James Buckanan (1857-1861) The Election of 1800: In the election of 1800 there were four presidential candidates: 2 from the Democratic Party (North & South), 1 from the Constitutional Party, and 1 from the Republican Party. Abe Lincoln of the Republican Party defeated the other three candidates with the idea of anti-slavery, his name did not appear on any ballots in the Southern states. The Civil War Era 1860-1865 The Civil War: 1861-1865 The Civil War Era The Civil War Era was an Era with a rise in republicanism, mostly seen during the south. After the succession of South Carolina many other Deep South states also succeeded; however, there was much opposition to succession and the decision was made by the elected politicians not the people.
For this reason the individual's contribution in the election process decreased, as they had no say in succession except through the politicians.
Abe Lincoln (1861-1865) South Carolina Succeeds: 1860
Following the election of Lincoln in 1860 South Carolina's legislature unanimously called for succession from the Union. The Confederate States of America is created: 1861
Following South Carolina's succession, many other Deep South states succeed (with some opposition). The states formed together to create the Confederate States of America. Attack on Fort Sumter: 1861
Following the succession and creation of the Confederate States of America, the South began taking government forts in their territory. When Lincoln came into presidency, he reenforced Fort Sumter, one of the two forts remaining. The attacked Fort Sumter and Lincoln declared war. The Civil War was the bloodiest battle in United States history, with more Americans being killed than in any other war. South surrenders: 1865
On April 9th, 1865 General Lee surrendered to General Grant's army, ending the Civil War. Reconstruction Era: The Reconstruction Era was an era dominated by Congress and republicanism. With Congress controlling the US the citizens had little say, especially the South who were subject to the North rule. The role of the individual as a voter increased in this era, however. The 15th amendment ratified and gave African Americans the right to vote.
Andrew Johnson (1865-1869)
Ulysses Grant (1869-1877) 1880 The Reconstruction Era: 1865-1877 Lincoln's Assassination: 1865
President Lincoln is assassinated before he could put his 10% plan into effect. 13th Amendment: 1865
The 13th Amendment is ratified, abolishing slavery. Civil Rights Act of 1766:
Expands the rights of US citizens, allowing all US citizens to make contracts, sue, give evidence in court, and buy and sell property. Attack on the Southern 'Black Codes'. 15th Amendment Ratified: 1870 Forbids states from depriving citizens the right to vote based on race, color, or previous servitude. Civil Rights Act of 1875 Law guarantees equal rights in public places and prohibits exclusion of black in juries. The clause prohibiting segregated schools is not passed. Election of 1876:
Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Samuel J. Tilden. Noted that the winner of the election (Hayes) did not receive popular votes, but won the electoral college votes by 1. Republican Party (Hayes) gained Southern support by offering to withdraw troops, which Hayes does after his inauguration. This reunites the Union and the South, thus ending the Reconstruction Era. During the Revolutionary War Era, republicanism was at its peak. The parliament of England was ruling over all of the colonies, who had little or no say in their government. There was no voting in this era, as Parliament had direct and total control over the nation. This era is still majority republicanism, however, it contains some democratic aspects. With the Articles of Confederation, many officials are ruling over the people. However, as Shay's Rebellion occurs, the era leans towards democracy, as the majority is now standing up for their opinion.
During this era the role of the individual in voting is increased, but not yet significantly. This era the balance shifts back towards republicanism. In the election of 1796 Adams edges out Jefferson, meaning that Adams is representing the majority of the country; however, nearly 50% of the country did not vote for him.
The power of the citizens in the electoral process is increased in this era, as presidential elections come into play and citizens can vote for the best candidate. However, at this time it is exclusion to white, taxing paying, landowning males.
During this era I would side with the Anti-Federalists in the 1796 election against the Federalists. Having just defeated the monarchy of England and after the failure of the Articles of Confederation I would be wary of placing too much power in the government. While it is important to place more power in the central government, which the Articles Of Confederation failed to do, you must not place too much. When the Federalists took power they passed laws such as the Alien Act and the Sedition Act, which mainly restricts freedom of speech, showing that the Federalists did place too much power in the hands of the government. When the Constitution was passed the Bill of Rights had to be added to ensure the rights of the people, which were under threat at that time. Without the Bill of Rights, many freedoms might have been lost to the American people. During this era there is a shift more towards democracy, Jefferson is a believer in the individual and this causes him to allow citizens to make more choices rather than a large government. The role of the individual in the electoral process does not change in this era. Gilded Age and Imperialism: The Gilded Age was an era of corruption and greed, and moral purification. In this age the balance of republicanism and democracy leans slightly towards republicanism, slightly. Congress controlled the government during this era of weak presidents, and monopolies and big business controlled the economy. However, the government listened to the people, and attempted to fix the economic problems the people were facing. During this era the role of the individual in the voting process remains the same.
Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)
James Garfield (1881-1881)
Chester Arthur (1881-1885)
Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) Gilded Age and Imperialism: 1877-1890 The state of Massachusetts enacts 'Blue Laws', prohibiting most forms of work on Sunday. Part of the moral reform. 1880: 1890: Sherman Anti-Trust Act Federal Law which regulates large corporations and trusts and eliminates monopolies. Part of the fight against big business and monopolies. Interstate Commerce Act: 1887
Government attempt to regulate the railroad industry, which companies were monopolizing and using to gain high profits. Part of the fight against monopolies and trusts. 1910 Progressivism & WWI: 1900-1920 Progressivism & WWI The Era of Progressivism & WWI saw a drastic rise in democracy. Progressivism at its finest attacked political corruption, made the government more effective, and believed that government should help relieve social and economy stress. The government became involved at local levels during this area, helping with conservation, labor disputes, and reform. The muckrakers pointed out flaws in society, and the government fixed them.
During this era the individual also saw a sharp increase in their ability to play a role in the election process. During this era direct primaries were used to select party nominees and the government gave the people more direct control over it. Women also gain the right to vote during this era.
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
William Taft (1909-1913)
Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) 16th Amendment: 1913
Declares that Congress has the right to lay and collect taxes on income. 17th Amendment: 1913
Direct election of senators by state voters. 18th Amendment:
Alcoholic prohibition. 19th Amendment:
Women's suffrage, women gain the right to vote. Pure Food and Drug Act: 1906 Prevented manufacture, sale, or transportation misbranded, poisonous, unsanitary, or harmful food, drugs, medicine, or liquor. This Act was in response to the outrage caused over Upton Sinclair's novel 'The Jungle'. World War 1: 1914-1920 World War 1 Begins: 1914 US enters the War: 1917 Sinking of the Lusitania: 1915 British passenger ship carrying Americans was sunk by a German U-boat. Following the outrage of the 'Zimmerman Telegraph' the US enters the war. The Interwar Years & WWII The Interwar Years & WWII was an era that saw an increase in republicanism. The Great Depression caused the government to step in to the citizens everyday lives to help pull the economy back to prosperity. WWII had the same effect as the Great Depression, more government regulation and less rights of the people. In this era the power of the individual in voting was lessened a bit due to the drastic actions the government had to take to ensure the survival of the country.
Warren Harding (1921-1923)
Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)
Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
Franklin Roosevelt (1933-1945) 1940 Interwar Years & WWII Era: 1920-1940 Black Tuesday: 1929 On October 24, 1929 the stock market plummeted in value, causing many Americans to lose a lot of money. This was the first crash of several which (along with bank failure) triggers the Great Depression. The Election of 1932:
In the 1932 election the power shifted from the republicans to the democrats when Franklin Roosevelt defeated President Hoover. Hoover's tactic against the great depression had been aiding the corporations, thinking that if the government aided the poor they'd become reliant on them. Roosevelt choose a different tactic against the depression: he used the government to create jobs and fight unemployment. Roosevelt's "New Deal" Roosevelt proposed the "New Deal" which was meant to provide relief to those suffering from the effects of the Great Depression. To do this he... Made jobs for the unemployed. Stabilized the stock market. Created an insurance system. Restored confidence in banks. His tactic was highly successful and was one of the reasons the US escaped the Great Depression. WWII: 1939-1945 Lend-Lease Act 1941:
Although US was 'neutral' in the conflict, Roosevelt signed the 'Lend-Lease Act' which allowed the US government to lend or lease weapons to other countries. Pearl Harbor: 1941
In response to the growing threat of Japan, Roosevelt cut off all trade with Japan. Japan responded by bombing the US's military base in Hawaii, bringing the US into the war. D-Day: 1944
On June 6, 1944 Allied forces landed on the coast of France to start the assault against the Axis Powers. Germany Surrenders: Early 1945
The Soviets, US, and Britain invade Berlin, causing the Germans to surrender. The Atomic Bomb: 1945
To end the war with Japan, Truman ordered the use of the Atomic Bomb. The first bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6th, the 2nd on August 9th on Nagasaki. Postwar America: In the era of Postwar America the balance of republicanism and democracy was yet again in republicanism's favor. With the tensions between the USSR and the US, the government became very active in national and international affairs, passing laws and aids without the consent of the citizens. During this time period the individual's role in the election process did not change.
Harry Truman (1945-1953)
Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961) 1970 Postwar America: 1945-1960 Truman Doctrine: 1947
Doctrine providing economic and military aid to Turkey and Greece, start of the 'containment' policy. Marshall Plan: 1948
Plan to contain the spread of communism through economic aid to Europe and expansion of foreign influence. Response to Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' speech. NATO: 1949
U.S. joins NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A defence alliance of nations in Europe and North America, the USSR acts by making the Warsaw Pact. Korean War: 1950-1953 Montgomery Bus Boycott: 1955
Started when Rosa Parks was fined for refusing to give up her seat on a bus. Ended 1956 when the Supreme Court declared Montgomery's segregated bus system illegal. The 60s & 70s The 60s & 70s Vietnam War: 1961-1973 US enters the Vietnam War: 1961 "I Have a Dream": 1963
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous "I Have A Dream" speech. Kennedy Assassination: 1963
President Kennedy is assassinated, succeeded by Vice President Lyndon Johnson. March on Pentagon: 1967
Polls show more Americans are against the war than for it. Martin Luther King Jr. is Assassinated: 1968 Apollo 11: 1969
US lands astronauts on the moon. 26th Amendment: 1971
Voting age lowered to 18. Cuban Missile Crisis: 1962
The standoff between the USSR and US when the USSR attempted to set up a missile base on Cuba and the US blocked them. This moment was the height of tension during the Cold War. The 60s & 70s era was an era where the balance of republicanism & democracy shifted towards Democracy. During the 60s & 70s the Civil Rights movement was gaining popularity with the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Civil Rights Act of 1961. Protests of the Vietnam War caused an increase in democracy.
The role of the individual in the election process was increased in significance with the 26th amendment, decreasing the voting age to 18.
John Kennedy (1961-1963)
Lyndon Johnson (1963-1969)
Richard Nixon (1969-1974)
Gerald Ford (1974-1977)
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Watergate: 1972
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