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Inventions: Middle Ages

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Sydney Chen

on 12 April 2017

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Transcript of Inventions: Middle Ages

Military Science
Overview
The Middle Ages is commonly perceived as a very dark age. However, during this period, there were actually many things invented that have great importance in our society today; these inventions revolutionized people's ways of living.
China, India, Rome, Muslim lands, Europe
Navigation
Military Science
Medicine
Mathematics
Agriculture/Food
Education
Time keeping
The Printing Press
Navigation
Compass







Agriculture and Food
Plow





Other Innovations



Medicine
Scientific Method (Postulation and Experimentation)
Understanding of Anatomy, Epidemiology, and Pathology
Dental surgery and restoration
Hypodermic needle, syringe, bandages, and cotton dressing
Anesthesiology
Treatments for Cancer
Quarantines
Eye glasses
Middle Ages: Inventions
prior to invention
sailors used their surroundings
constellations
inconsistent direction of North
pointer aligned accurately with Earth's magnetic field
Maps
Romans came up with longitude and latitude
wide horizontally (east, west)
Navigation: How did it make life easier?
Compass
Stirrups


Saddles



greater balance and support
use a sword more efficiently without the fear of falling off a horse
Triangular sails
heavy cavalry needed saddles
protected the horse from the weight of the rider
gave the rider greater security and protection
use a lance more effectively
Military Science: How did it make life easier?
Invented back in 8000 BC but Improved Upon in the Middle Ages
Before
Cultivating Land was Difficult which Reduced Population in the Northwestern Europe
After
Heavier and Wetter Soil (Northwestern Europe) could be Plowed
Dramatic Increase Agricultural Productivity and Population
Math: How did it make life easier?
Banks






safe place to store money
Tax Collecting
rich had to pay more
poor had to pay less
Fair Trade
self-explanatory
Citrus Fruits, Eggplant, Apricots, Cotton, Sugarcane, Rice, Hard Wheat, and Artichokes
Whiskey and Brandy
Crop Rotation and Managing Serfs
Redesigned Plow
Modern Day Crop Rotation
Managing Serfs
Middle Age Saddle
Middle Age Stirrups
Education
Dental Treatment in the Middle Ages
European University
Based on Guild System
Influenced by Muslim and Byzantine Universities
Transferable Academic Credentials
Abacus Schools (13th Century)
Teach Boys and Girls Mathematics Using Arabic Numerals
Reading and Writing in Vernacular (Language Spoken in the Area), Geometry, and Basic Business Management
Intended to Educate the Children of Merchant Families
Especially Common in Italy
Nine Types of Head Bandages
Medieval Eye Wear
Middle Age Universities
Alfosine Tables
Time Keeping
Hourglasses
Different Kinds of Clocks
Time Keeping: How it made life easier?
World map from Middle Ages
Before The Printing Press
13 Century -- (China)





Block printing
time consuming and expensive
Woodcuts were not durable; tended to split after repeated use
New block had to be created every time for each new impression
Block is discarded as soon as a new impression was needed
During the Printing Press
15th Century








Movable metal type
Johannes Gutenberg c. 1398-1468
Son of a noble family of Mainz, Germany
Former stone cutter and goldsmith
Devised an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony that melted at a low temperature, cast well in the die, durable in the press
Possible to reuse pieces of type
Individual letters were movable and could be put together to form words; separated by blank spaces formed lines of type
Lines of type were brought together to make a page
Infinite variety of texts could be printed by reusing and resetting the type
The Printing Press: How did it make life easier?
Johannes Gutenberg (Creator of the Printing Press)
The Printing Press Created by Gutenberg
Bibliography
"Medieval-technology." Answers. Answers Corporation, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2017. (Course Reading)
"Muslim World - Algebra." Muslim World - Algebra. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.
"China - Waterclock." China - Waterclock. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.
International, American. "Medieval Warfare Armour & Shields." Medieval Armour. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.
"The Ages of Exploration." Ages of Exploration. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.
"Compass." Compass - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.
"The Gutenberg Press." Treasures of the McDonald Collection. Oregon State University Libraries, n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2017. <http://scarc.library.oregonstate.edu/omeka/exhibits/show/mcdonald/incunabula/gutenberg/>.
"Technology in the Medieval Age." Technology in the Medieval Age. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2017.
Middle Age Compass. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <http://web.prm.ox.ac.uk/england/image-admin/d/1131-2/1927_46_14.jpg>.
Triangular Sails. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. < http://nabataea.net/Photos/s4.jpg>.
Medieval Messanger. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <http://m.mult-kor.hu/image/article/index/.cut-660x380/45339.jpg>.
Medieval Dental Treatment. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <http://userscontent2.emaze.com/images/18ee71bb-0469-40ba-a275-d484e7eb4a5a/5c87d735-ed66-4daa-a129-a1092d4790f5.png>.
Different Head Bandages. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/cf/85/34/cf85341bba9dc7f8711c101ed4fb2c92.jpg>.
Medieval Eye Glasses. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/b2/1a/14/b21a145ad4599f9f79c05758b03d351c.jpg>.
Alfonsine Tables. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2013/Numbers_In_The_Middle_Ages/table.png>.
Songs by Santa Maria. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <https://cdn.line.do/uploads/54b3811c0a49e73313862ba6_1421852382290_480.jpg>.
Middle Age Abacus. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <http://www.npr.org/assets/img/2014/11/07/abacustest6.gif>.
Medieval Stirrups. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <http://pics.myarmoury.com/stirrups_s.jpg>.
Medieval Saddle. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <http://horsehints.org/graphics/MidevilSaddle1.jpg>.
Managing Serf in the Middle Ages. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <https://sprottmoney.com/media/wysiwyg/wordpress/s/e/cache/2/ece9a24a761836a70934a998c163f8c8/Serfs.jpg>.
Crop Rotation. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <https://res.cloudinary.com/growinginteractive/image/upload/q_80/v1446216995/growblog/crop-rotation-beds-2x.jpg>.
Medieval Plow. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 17. <http://medievaleurope.mrdonn.org/plow_medieval.gif>.
Medieval Map. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 17. <http://discovermagazine.com/~/media/Images/Issues/2014/June/early-world-map.jpg?mw=900>.
Johannes Gutenberg (Creator of the Printing Press). Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 17. <http://friendsofcsntm.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/img_gutenberg_big.jpg>.
Printing Press. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 17. <http://cdn-4.mrdowling.com/images/704printingpress2.png>.
Timeline of Inventions. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 17. <http://www.thetawheedproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Islamic-invention_with-Picture1.jpg>.
Conclusion
Medicine: How did it make life easier?
Essential Questions
Did the technological innovations of the Middle Ages make people's lives harder or easier?

Which advance had the greatest impact on the society back then?

How did the inventions that were created during the Middle Ages affect the culture of modern day society?
Did the technological innovations in the Middle Ages make people’s live harder or easier?

Out of all the advances in technology during the Middle Ages, which ones had the biggest impact on people’s lives? Why?

Did the technological advancements of the Middle ages affect the culture of our society today? How?

Education: How did it make life easier?
Learn with the Story (Imparare con la storia)
multiplied output of texts
cut costs of books
Libraries store greater quantities
initiated "information revolution"
moralized medical, practical, and travel manuals
superior basis for scholarships
prevented further corruption through hand copying
gave scholars same text to work from --> science became more reliable
taught both boys and girls; different wealth status
greater populous of scholars that were able to be educated
healed and saved many lives
illnesses could be treated
opened door to many more advancements in the future
surgery, contacts
healthy and populated modern world
Centralized Civilizations
Fixed the Societal Need to Organize Efficiently
More Organized
horses easier to ride
horseback attacks in battle
revolutionized warfare
faster communication
travel quicker
travel safer and more efficient
triangular sails: catch wind from different angles
independent
travel without reliance of constellations and nature
Renaissance Period Clock
Interior of the Library of the University of Leyden
Medieval Hour Glass
Medieval Clock
Monks/People Hand Copying Texts
Full transcript