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Pregnancy

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by

Yasmine Zakaria

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Pregnancy

Pregnancy


Third Trimester
Some new body changes you might notice in the third trimester include:

Shortness of breath
Heartburn
Swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face.
Hemorrhoids
Tender breasts
Belly button may stick out
Trouble sleeping
The baby "dropping", or moving lower in your abdomen
Contractions, which can be a sign of real or false labor

Pregnancy in Different Countries
-How do other countries treat Pregnancies in comparison to the US?


Stages of Pregnancy
Development:
First Trimester
Your period stopping is a clear sign that you are pregnant. Other changes may include:

Extreme tiredness
Tender, swollen breasts. Your nipples might also stick out.
Upset stomach with or without throwing up (morning sickness)
Cravings or distaste for certain foods
Mood swings
Constipation (trouble having bowel movements)
Need to pass urine more often
Headache
Heartburn
Weight gain or loss

Contraception Methods
Birth control pill causes promiscuity?

Birth control pills cause abortion?

Birth control is against God’s will?

Politics of contraception?
Second Trimester
As your body changes to make room for your growing baby, you may have:

Body aches, such as back, abdomen, groin, or thigh pain
Stretch marks on your abdomen, breasts, thighs, or buttocks
Darkening of the skin around your nipples
A line on the skin running from belly button to pubic hairline
Patches of darker skin, usually over the cheeks, forehead, nose, or upper lip. Patches often match on both sides of the face. This is sometimes called the mask of pregnancy.
Numb or tingling hands, called carpal tunnel syndrome
Itching on the abdomen, palms, and soles of the feet.
Swelling of the ankles, fingers, and face.
Abstinence: the only sure way to prevent pregnancy and protect against sexually transmitted infections and HIV

Barrier Method: Condoms are the most common form of the barrier method.

Hormonal Methods:
Oral Contraceptives (the pill)
The patch
Shot/ Injection
Vaginal Ring

Implantable Devices: Prevent pregnancy for long periods of time. Usually last between 3 to 10 years.

Permanent methods:
sterilization implant
surgical implant






Controversies
In the US...
- Maternity care costs far less in other developed countries than it does in the United States, yet studies show that their citizens do not have less access to care or to high-tech care during pregnancy than Americans.



The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives you the right to take up to twelve unpaid
weeks off of work as a result of your pregnancy.

-Your employer must hold your job, or a substantially similar one, during your twelve weeks off.

Your employer cannot discriminate against you just because you are pregnant (Civil Rights Act of 1964 )

-Many employers mistakenly assume pregnant women will soon quit or be less dedicated to their jobs, but to do so without any rational basis is pregnancy discrimination





In Africa...
In Africa, some cultures believe that pregnancy should not be celebrated, especially before the baby is born.

-No baby showers, mixing with witches, rubbing belly, baby gifts.

-Seen as a reincarnation of ancestors, not a procreation of future generations
In Germany...
In Germany, the practice of having midwives is extremely prominent

-They must be present at every birth while having a doctor is optional

Pregnant women in Germany have no need to worry about their job

-Once they tell their employer that they are pregnant, they cannot be fired

-Thus, when the economy goes bad, being pregnant can save your job.

Pregnant women can stop working six weeks before their due date

-Forbidden from working for eight weeks after giving birth, all with full pay
Hormones affecting Behavior?
Hormone: a chemical substance like a steroid or protein that is released in the bloodstream in response to a stimulus
Estrogen:

-Responsible in breast tenderness and enlargement
Progesterone

-Causes the loss of interest in sex during pregnancy
Prolactin

-Increases the cells to produce milk within the breasts

- It also helps prevent nursing woman from getting pregnant
Oxytocin

- Responsible for "caring" behavior in women towards their baby

- It allows contraction of the womb and induce labor


Research suggests that the reproductive hormones may prepare a woman’s brain for the demands of motherhood thus helping her becomes less affected by stress and more aware of her baby’s needs.
Breastfeeding
Studies show that people, mostly young people and people without children disagree with breastfeeding in public or having a facility for breastfeeding

Older people and people with children agree that there should be a breastfeeding facility.

In UK breastfeeding in public is not the "norm" and prefer to breast feed in a private room.
Breast-fed children are more resistant to disease and infection early in life than formula-fed children

Breast-fed children are less likely to contract a number of diseases later in life, including juvenile diabetes, multiple sclerosis, heart disease, and cancer before the age of 15

Mothers who breastfeed are less likely to develop osteoporosis later in life, are able to lose weight gained during pregnancy more easily and have a lower risk of breast, uterine and ovarian cancer
Pregnancy and Media
Duchess Kate gets positive feedback vs. Kim Kardashian regarding their weight
Pregnant woman on her
third trimester is getting
bashed on by the media
because she is doing
crossfit training
Thank You!
Full transcript