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Political Structure and Ideology -- Mexico

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by

Iris Coco

on 23 January 2014

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Transcript of Political Structure and Ideology -- Mexico

Political Structure and Ideology -- Mexico
Political Culture
At a score of 81, Mexico is a hierarchical society. This means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification.
Mexico scores 82 on this dimension and thus has a very high preference for avoiding uncertainty.
Mexico scores 69 on this dimension and is thus a masculine society.
Vocabulary
Political Structure Overview
A federal republic
Transitional democracy (established)
Executive branch remains powerful
Judiciary is relatively weak
National Flag of Mexico
Political Parties and Ideology
National Action Party (PAN)
A center-right party
Mexican Roman Catholics, together with other conservatives founded the National Action Party (PAN) in 1939
The “loyal opposition” to Mexico’s long-ruling PRI.
Defeat the PRI in 2000 with Vicente Fox as their candidate.
Main Sources of political socialization
- Education
most middle to upper class children attend religious private schools that preach against socialism, criticized anticlerical laws, and saw the political world as corrupt, self serving, and materialistic

Effect: Higher education has decreased citizens' tolerance for civil rights violation and increased support for democratic liberties and a strong presidentialist government
Timeline
Key Events
Mexican Revolution
Revolution war against the colonial rule of Spanish
helped establish a connection between the government and the masses, at least until the end of the twentieth century
Beliefs about Authority

In Mexico, political power has been in the hands of a relatively small set of people

People are connected by business relations, family ties, friendship, and membership of political institutions throughout most of the 20th century.
Ex. Presidential Election
Mexican society and business are vertically structured.
Mexicans emphasize hierarchical relationships.

Those above you in rank must always be treated with respect.
This makes it important to know which person is in charge, and leads to an
authoritarian approach
to decision-making and problem- solving.
Rank is important
Beliefs about Authority

Group versus Individual

Liberty versus Security

Political System Legitimacy

The Political Community
Group versus Individual
Mexico is considered as collectivistic society
Liberty VS. Security
Mexico has a combination of deference to social authority and admiration of revolutionary spirit.
Dominance of PRI
PRI 's name combines concepts of revolution and insititution reflects the dichotomy in Mexican culture between an embrace of freedom and a focus on security
- 1900s: Leaned toward order and security rather than freedom and liberty
late 1900s - 2000s: valued democracy even if it means instability
Political System Legitimacy

The Political Community
- civic alliance
Coalition of hundreds of nongovernmental organizations, independent labor unions, and Mexican citizens who have "scrutinize[d] the conduct" of national elections since 1994

- Media
By the late 1990s only a handful of Mexico City newspapers and magazines were critical of the government
Media more openly critical since PRI lost control of presidency in 2000

- electoral system reforms of 1996 required the Federal Electoral Institute to monitor campaign coverage

Geert Hofstede’s Five Dimensions of Culture Scores
Mexico, with a score of 30 is considered a collectivistic society. This is manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
Formed after the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
the PRI was formed in an effort to prevent further violence among rival political groups.
Ideology: (conservative)
"National Action"
- Rejects a fundamental adherence to left- or right-wing politics or policies,
- Both right- and left-wing policies may be considered equally carefully in formulation of national policy.


Advocate free enterprise, privatization, smaller government, and liberal reforms as well as opposition to same-sex unions and abortion.
Ideology
Democratic nationalism

Corporatism Economic liberalism
Ex. free market, private ownership
1521- Cortes and the Spaniards capture the Aztec capital, initiating 3 centuries of
colonial rule.
1810-1821 - War of Independence from Spain
1876-1911 - Porfirio Diaz dictatorship
1910-1920 -
Mexican Revolution
1917 -
Mexican

Constitution
written
1929 - Elias Calles founds the PRI
1934-1940 - Lazaro Cardenas presidency
1968 - Tlatelolco

massacre
1988 - Salinas elected
1997 - PRI lost its majority in the national legislature
2000 -
Vicente Fox
(of the PAN) becomes president
2006 -
Felipe Calderon
(PAN) becomes president
The PRI Dominant regime had a great deal of system legitimacy
1910 revolution
impressive economic growth
Later shift towards democratic system
Method:
Building attachment to Mexican national identity has been a long endeavor
Divided group of citizens
mestizo: part native, part European
unmixed natives and Europeans
2000 Presidential Election
PRI lost the presidency.
The election signaled a shift in mass values and presented a growing frustration with corruption and inequality.
It encouraged Mexican to peacefully change their political system
Highly authoritarian culture, solidified during colonial rule by Spanish culture, strong state control and the Catholic Church’s domination of social institutions
• Mexican Revolution
• Industrial Revolutionary Party (PRI)
• Corruption: still one of the main problem of Mexican society
• Catholic Church
• Colonial Rule: Mexico is under the rule of Spanish until Mexican Revolution
• Vicente Fox (PAN): win the presidential election of 2000
• Chiapas
• National Action Party (PAN): current party in control
• Mestizo: people who are part native and part spanish

By Tracy Wei
PRI lost the 2000 presidential election mainly because of corruption
Full transcript