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Physics Project Quarter 4
Transcript of Physics Project Quarter 4
Help restome capabilities lost with the amputated limb.
Still have not advanced to the point where they can rival the functionality provided by biological limbs.
Artificial limbs are becoming increasingly similar to real limbs.
Future goal: bionic artifial limbs
earliest historical accounts of prosthetic limb use were recorded in Greek and Roman times
Changes very little: exception of very recent times, prosthetic devices have been constructed of basic materials, such as wood and metal, and held to the body with leather attachments. (Ex. mummy toe Cairo 3000 years ago)
This prosthetic toe dates back to between 950 and 710 B.C.
The National Academy of Sciences: Artificial Limb Program (1945) in response WWII veteran amputees.
Advances in materials, computer design methods, and surgical techniques.
Materials make a lighter, stronger, and more realistic limb: advances plastics and carbon-fiber composites.
Advanced prosthetics are more controllable due to electronic technologies and are even capable of automatically adapting to certain functions (ex. gripping/walking).
Pylon: internal frame or skeleton traditionally formed by metal rods and covered with a foam-like material to match appearence of amputated limb.
Socket: Portion of device that interfaces with limb stump or residual limb. Since it transmits forces to the patients body it has to be fitted to ensure it does not cause damage to the underlying tissues.
Suspension system: Keeps prosthetic attached to the body. Can come in various forms including harness system, straps, belts, or sleeves. One of the most common ones relies on suction.
Most prosthetic limbs have same basic components but each device in unique and designes for a specific type and level of amputation.
Body powered: are controlled by cables connecting them to elsewhere on the body
Externally powered: are powered with motors and can be controlled by the patient in several ways
Myoelectric: Muscle contractions are detected by electrodes so that the electrical signals generated by residual limb can measure muscle moverments.
Prosthetics in sports: Sarah Reinertsen's Story
Professional athlete with numerous world records whos left leg was amputated and replaced by a prosthetic leg made or carbon fiber. Questions arise of wether her disability gives her an advantage.
Things to consider:
From a physics standpoint this prosthetics behave like springs so while running the body moves forward as well as up and down.
As we all know the body has kinetic energy and there are changes in its gravitational potential energy. As the prosthetics flexes, it stores elastic potential energy. As it relaxes, much of the elastic potential energy is converted back into to gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.
Designers seek the ideal combination of springs constant and shape to simulate the complex energy transfers involved in running.