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CONSIDERATIONS FOR OPTIMIZED ATHLETIC DEVELOPMENT

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Steven Scruggs

on 1 November 2016

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Transcript of CONSIDERATIONS FOR OPTIMIZED ATHLETIC DEVELOPMENT

Start
Components of Development
Putting It Together...
Systematically
CONSIDERATIONS FOR OPTIMIZED ATHLETIC DEVELOPMENT:

A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH


Graduate Assistant | Sport Performance
PhD Student | Motor Development
at
The University of South Carolina
__________________________________

Keith Scruggs
CSCS, USAW, USATF-2
Twitter: @sports.scruggs




How do we effectively promote all aspects?
Neuromuscular Facilitation (Rate Coding)...
Muscular Strength...
Muscular Endurance...
Power...
Agility...
Aerobic Endurance...
Body Composition...
Mobility...
Positive Psychological Attributes...
Injury Prevention...
Skill Development & Performance...


Pinwheel of Athletic Development

What is an optimal progression for positive athletic development trajectories / outcomes?

How should we start the process of training?
When should we start the process of training?
How should we progress throughout the training process?


A
Developmental
Approach

“Integrative training model indicating a focus on the development of
fundamental motor skills through activities that consolidate
skill- and health-related fitness may maximize efficacy of
neuromuscular conditioning during pre-adolescence.” (p. 162)
Meyer et al, 2011
Focus on FMS development & Fitness via “Integrative Neuromuscular Training” (Meyer et al., 2011)

Developmentally appropriate
progressions of pliometric movements, resistance training & conditioning.

Intent - Improved coordination, control of COM, & controlled use of extremities


Putting it All Together

TRACKING THE PROCESS

Acknowledgments
These objectives are achieved and promoted through the orchestration of a well-planned / well-coached training program that is based on:
Neuromotor co-ordination must be taught in all phases of development in order to become procedural patterns during more complex training & sporting activities.
"Strength" training should progress from General -to- Specific in nature throughout the training process. Clark (2005) argues that patterns of coordination & perceptual-motor linkages between the vestibular & motor system should be acquired in early stages of development for optimal transfer of training in later phases.

She points out that an athlete should reflect "DEEP GRAMMAR" of trunk & limb coordination/control in order to advance in complex motor skill competence & training.

She also references mastery of "weight shift" (or COM manipulation) as highly relevant to context-specific skill learning in "throwing, skiing, or performing other activities that require rapid changes of direction." Coincidentally, weight shift is a pivotal component of executing weightlifting (CJ & S) movements & their derivatives.
Activities such as weightlifting (derivatives), jumping
& sprinting are also "SKILLS" & are learned through practice as they're not "maturational movements ".

Guthrie (1952) defines "skill" as the "ability to bring about some end result with maximum certainty & minimum outlay of energy."
"Athletic Developmental Training" should primarily focus around progressing through "stages" - a series of postural transformations that should emphasize coordination. Gesell, 1946

Rate of development is independent to each athlete based on organismic (genetics / self will) & environmental (coaching style / training program) constraints (exposure); however, simply developing efficiently & effectively are the underlying overall goals of the training process.

As athletes advance in their developmental stages (maintain posture & control COM) a coach can then consider oriented optimal loading for "weightlifting" task".
ASI LTAD Model
ASI Summer Camp Schedule
We Must Take a Holistic &
From the Beginning: A developmental perspective on movement & mobility. 2005
RECALL...Procedural Memory.
Training allows for improved signaling from motor cortex to muscloskeletal system
Slide Created by Dr. David Stodden
1. Sporting Requirements / Demands
2. Desired Physical Attributes of the Sport
3. Trainable Factors of the Athlete
4. Optimization of the Program via Athlete Monitoring
Black Box Approach
- Mindlessly providing training input with little-to-no regard to the internal process (i.e. Fatigue Management, Desirable Adaptations)
White Box Approach
- Well planned / coached training objectives are provided & accountability is upheld via Athlete Monitoring.
PROBLEMS WITH THE BLACK BOX APPROACH
Physical Improvements -- Unknown or Ignored

Poor Performances -- S&C Staff vs Sport Coach

Accountability -- ZERO

Application -- "Accepted" Dogma

EVIDENCE-BASED / LOGICALLY APPLIED APPROACH
As coaches we are aware of, not only the "input" & "output", but components of the internal process as well.

In sport, the internal process represents the individual physiological adaptations occurring as a result of the training process.

These adaptations are tracked via "Athlete Monitoring" -- Testing is on-going, should resemble demands of the sport, all while being valid & reliable.

Testing = Protocols | Training = Programs
STRENGTH ENDURANCE
Sets/Reps Range: 5x10 - 3x10
Possible Strategies: Limited Recovery - Contrast

Exercise Menu:
OH Press (DB, CG, SG,Complex Variations)
Squats (DB, KB, OH, Front, Variations)
Bench (DB, Flat, Incline, GluteBridge)
Unilateral Squats (Bulg. Split Squats, Lunges, etc)
WL Derivatives (P2K, Shrugs, RDL's)
Pulls from Floor (Sumo Deadlifts, HexBar)

Maximal & Absolute Strength
Sets/Reps Range: 3x10 - 5x5 - 3x5
Possible Strategies: Clusters, Contrast, Max RI

Exercise Menu:
OH Presses (Strict, Push Press)
Squats (Front, Back, Squat Press, Variations)
Pulls from Floor (Sumo, Hex, Clean Pulls)
Eccentric Accentuated Exercises - Tempo
Wave-Loading
Promote Variability w/ Auxiliary Exercises

Power Development
Sets/Reps Range: 5x3 - 3x3 - 3x2 - 3x1
Strategies: Clusters, Wave Loading, PAP

Exercise Menu:
Squat Jumps-Jump Shrugs-Depth Jump
Full WL Movements (Athlete/Sport)
MB Throws & Multi-Hops

Speed Development
Focus: Accelerative Abilities
Strategies: Dynamic Warm-Ups, Inclines, Fly-Ins, Change of Direction Agility

Benefits of Speed Development:
Improvements to -- Temporal Sequencing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, Motor Unit Recruitment.
(Ross et al, 2001)
EYES OF THE STOVE APPROACH
DeWeese, Scruggs, et al, 2013
THE CENTERPIECE OF DEVELOPMENT
THE PROCESS MUST ASSIST WITH / PROMOTE:

1. REDUCING RISK OF INJURY

2. SPORT SKILL ENHANCEMENT

3. POSITIVE PYSCHOSOCIAL HEALTH
Promoting all aspects of training, managing fatigue, and creating a championship environment
Hubbard & Stetson (1938) - An experimental analysis of human locomotion
"A GOAL WITHOUT A PLAN IS JUST A WISH" -- HERM EDWARDS
Dr. Brad H. DeWeese -- Sport Physiologist / Strength & Conditioning Coach | East Tennessee State Univeristy Olympic Training Site


Dr. Mike & Meg Stone -- Directors of Sport Science & Coach Education | East Tennessee State University


Scott Caulfield -- Director of Performance | NSCA Performance Center


Billy Anderson -- Director of Sports Performance | University of South Carolina


Former Colleagues -- Simon Haake - UNC, Omar Ahmad - UNC-Asheville, Howard Gray - Texas A&M, Darren Holmes - Colorado Rockies, Christian Carter - James Madison University

-- Phasic Homeostasis (S.K.Scruggs,2015)
i.e. Coordination, Balance, Gross & Fine Motor Skills
Power = Work/Time or Force x Velocity

Work = Force x Distance

Force = Mass x Acceleration

Acceleration = Velocity / Time

Velocity = Distance / Time

Impulse = Force x Time or Momentum x System Mass
TIMEOUT...
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