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Transcript of Chem OHOHOH
polarity and polarity of molecules Done by:
Lau Yung Shan
Liu Tian Yu Electronegativity Electronegativity Case Study 1: AlCl3 Bond Polarity Bond Polarity Case Study 2: BeCl2 Molecular Polarity Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract electrons to form negative ions
Higher electronegativity has higher tendency to attract electrons
Lower electronegativity has lower tendency to attract electrons
Ionic bonds are formed when there is a large difference in electronegativity (>1.7)
Covalent bonds are formed when there is a small difference in electronegativity (<0.3) AlCl3
Between metal and non-metal
Forms covalent bond instead of ionic
Due to difference in electronegativity
For aluminum chloride, the electronegativity of aluminum is 1.61 while the electronegativity of chlorine is 3.16.
Difference 3.16 – 1.61 = 1.55
The difference in electronegativity is 1.55 thus, a polar covalent bond would be formed. For beryllium chloride, the electronegativity of beryllium is 1.57 while the electronegativity of chlorine is 3.16.
Difference 3.16 – 1.57 = 1.59
The difference in electronegativity is 1.59 thus, a polar covalent bond would be formed. In a polar covalent bond, the atom with a high electronegativity is labelled
The atom with lower electronegativity is labelled
measured by its dipole moment Inductive effect
-The shifting of electrons in a sigma bond in response to the electronegativity of the nearby atoms
-Metals usually inductively donate electrons
-Non metals inductively withdraw electrons Electrons are displaced in the direction of the arrow Electronegativity Polar covalent bonding if electronegativity difference is between 0.3 - 1.7, the atoms would form a polar covalent bond, which is a type of covalent bond.
O (3.5) H (2.1)
= 1.4 Dipole moment is zero as individual dipole cancel out each other Molecular Polarity Order the bonds in the following compounds according to their increasing ionic character: CCl4, MgCl2, TiCl3, Cl2O Question! Coulumbic Force describes the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles
Like charges repel; unlike charges attract
F = electrical force acting between two atoms
Q=magnitude of the charges of each atom
r = the distance between the two atoms
K= Coulomb constant (8.9875* 10^9 N.m^2.C^ 2) Energy-Internuclear Distance relation THANK YOU! :) Trends in Electronegativity Electronegativity is affected by
1. Number of protons in nucleus
2. Distance from nucleus
3. Amount of screening by inner electrons
Increases across a period
Decreases down a group