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Biotechnology Time line (1960-1980)
Transcript of Biotechnology Time line (1960-1980)
Exploiting base pairing, hybrid DNA-RNA molecules are created. 1960 1961 The genetic code is understood for the first time. 1964 The existence of reverse transcriptase (RT) is predicted. Also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into single-stranded DNA. 1965 Plasmids were classified. A genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes. 1966 The genetic code is cracked by Marshall Nirenburg, Robert Holley, and Har Gobind Khorana. 1967 The first automatic protein sequencer is perfected. 1969 An enzyme is synthesized in vitro for the first time. 1970 Reverse transcriptase is isolated. It helps in the formation of a double helix DNA once the RNA has been reverse transcribed into a single strand cDNA. Specific restriction nucleases are identified, opening the way for gene cloning. 1971 Restriction enzymes are discovered, and they are used to cut DNA. 1972 Paul Berg cut (spliced) sections of viral DNA and bacterial DNA with the same restriction enzyme. He pasted viral dna to the bacterial DNA 1973 The DNA composition of humans is discovered to be 99% similar to that of chimpanzees and gorillas. Purified RT is first used to synthesize cDNA from purified mRNA in vitro. Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer produced the first rDNA organism that produced human protein. 1974 The National Institute of Health forms a Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee to oversee recombinant genetic research. 1975 The first monoclonal antibodies are produced. 1976 The tools of recombinant DNA are first applied to a human inherited disorder.
Molecular hybridization is used for the prenatal diagnosis of alpha thalassemia.
Yeast genes are expressed in E. coli bacteria. The National Institutes of Health guidelines were developed for the study of rDNA. 1977 Genetically engineered bacteria are used to synthesize human growth protein. 1978 Genentech, Inc. used genetic engineering techniques to produce human insulin. Genetech was the first biotech company on the New York stock exchange. 1979 1980 Genentech produces human growth hormones and two kinds of interferon. DNA from malignant cells transforms a strain of cultured mouse cells, resulting in a new tool for analyzing cancer genes. The U.S. Supreme Court decided that man-made microbes could be patented 1960-1970 1971-1980 Mrs. Johnson if you want to use this for future classes, so that you can show them AWESOMENESS, you can have this one if you like. This is the end, I hope you liked this. Thank's for watching. Goodbye and Goodnight