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Human Evolution TimeLine

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by

Mayra Zavala

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of Human Evolution TimeLine

Nickname: Toumai
6-7 Million years ago
Western Africa Chad
About:
They are believed to be the first known species that separated from the chimp family.They have a Chimpanzee sized brain and walked upright on two legs(bipedal).
Orrorin Tugensis
Characteristics:
*Had 2 femurs(upper leg) proved they walked upright
*Had long curved finger bones used for grasping proved to be prehensile and moved through trees
*Had ape-like canine and premolar teeth
Characteristics:
*Large brow Ridge, usually male trait
*Relatively flat nasal area
*Face was flat compared to Apes but protruding compared to humans
*Widely eyed space for eye sockets sort of ape like
For more info:
http://australianmuseum.net.au/Sahelanthropus-tchadensis/
There has been controversy with the Salanthropus Tchadensis because some scientists believe that this species is a relative of the ape and not a human ancestor. For more info:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/10/1009_021009_chadskull.html
5.8-6.2 million years ago
Eastern Africa (Tugen hills , Central Kenya)
Orrorin Tugensis also caused some dispute because anthropologists could not decide whether it was an Australopithecus or a homonine like us
More info:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/03/080320-biped-ancestor_2.html
Facts:
Discovered by: Brigitte Senut and Martin Pickford while they led their expedition in July, 2001
50% Longer Limb bones than Lucy's
^Where they found the remains
Ardipithecus Kadabba
5.2-5.8 Million years ago
Eastern Africa (Mid. Awash Valley,Ethiopia
)
Facts:
*Showed signs of having teeth
*Lived in wooded areas which proved to us that they didn't evolve to walk upright in Savanna environment
* They would use sticks, twigs, leaves and other materials that were shaped in a way to obtain their food
-> Also, used stones for harder to get foods like nuts
About:
The fossils that have been found are important because they have found both fossils from the skull and body which helps us picture how this hominid looked like.
http://www.becominghuman.org/node/ardipithecus-kadaba-essay
<-Though there was some debate on whether or not this hominid was either our ancestor or an ancestor of apes because of the toe bones. The discovery of the toe bones was important because it showed us that this hominid walked up right but as you'll see in the 4th paragraph of the following article the tilt of the toe is what they are questioning.

http://www.becominghuman.org/node/ardipithecus-kadaba-essay
Artdipithecus Ramidus
4.4 million years ago
Eastern Africa (Middle Awash and Gona,Ethopia)
*"Ardi" was found in 2009
*Canine teeth in male and female are small, not much difference in genders
*Ardi's opposible toes lets her climb trees and walk up straight
*The smaller canine teeth and opposible toes are adaptations Ramidus had because it showed that they had moved on from eating roots and bark and the opposible toes lead them to grasp and walk up right
*Ardi's cranial capacity was smaller than a typical chimpanzee
Facts:
http://www.examiner.com/article/ten-facts-about-ardipithecus-ramidus-ardi
Australopithecus Anamensis
3.9-4.2 mya
Eastern Africa, Lake Turkana, Kenya, Middle Awash, Ethiopia
*Tibia was the best clue for the hominids locomotor abilities
*Tibia showed that the hominid would walk normally with one leg at a time applying pressure to the upper end of the Tibia also known as the shin bone
Teeth were covered with a larger enamel layer
*Most likely lived in wooded landed areas Northern Kenya, Southern Ethiopia
*Discovered on Lake Turkana, Kenya in 1965
Harvard Expedition
*Kanopi where they found the remains
*It was First classified as "Afrensis" but Meave Leaky and team found differences and changed it to Anamensis
*Leaky Discovered a complete lower jaw, and teeth resembling human teeth
In the video we find out that Anamensis is a transitional species
(Please skip ahead to 6:31 and stop at 8:20)
Australopithecus Afarensis
2.95-3.85 mya
Eastern Africa- Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania
*"Lucy" The most complete prehuman skeleton discovered by Donald Johnson in 1974
*Named the skeleton after a Beatles song
*Bi-Pedal
*Advantages to being Bi-pedal
-efficient, and you could carry things,
-female Afarensis after giving birth when they kept walking they'd recover faster
-See over grass and farther distances
*They had arched feet
*Strong arms and curved fingers helped them climb trees
Did we still climb trees??
Read to find out!
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121025150353.htm
"Laetoli" Footprints
*Leakey's team found a trace of footprints that were preserved in a layer of ash
*Started to See differences in men and women
*Men were usually bigger than women
* Men larger teeth as well
*Started to see the first stone tools in Gona, Ethiopia
2.1-3.3 mya
Southern Africa
*First discovered skull was from Taung Child his skull was in a box of rocks and was found by Raymond Dart
*The most complete adult skeleton was Mrs. Ples by Robert Broom and John T
*Upper and Lower jaws were rounded in the front like ours are
*mostly vegetarian- fruits, seeds, roots, and eggs were their diet
Australopithecus Africanus
* First early human discovered in Africa
*Somtimes said to be two different species or the same
Mrs.Ples
Taung Child
*Habitat: Woodland places close to water, Grasslands
*Height: 138cm(male) 115 cm (female)
*A child because of his molar teeth were just coming in
* It was first categorized by a Plesianthropus but as they looked at it down the road it was categorized as an Africanus
Palenthropis Boisei
1.2-2.3 mya
Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi
*large cheek teeth and relatively flat face
*Discovered by Mary Leakey
* Zinjanthropus boisei was it's first assigned named when they later changed it to P. Boisei
*used tools to get things to work
*Diet: Vegetarians
-Molars were really tough
*small brains
*They were highly specialized
-good short term living but since they werent adaptable they lead to extinction
*Habitat: Savannah
*lived along side with Homo Erectus in East Africa
Fun Fact: Nicknamed the Nutcracker man because of it's jaw and teeth
More info:
http://www.becominghuman.org/node/paranthropus-boisei-essay
Homo Habilis
1.4-2.4 mya
Easter and Southern Africa
*Discovered in 1960 by the Leakey team in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
* Known as the "Handy man"
*Created complex(took an item and changed it to a different item) tools and used them
*eats meat/are scavengers
*Large brain made them thinkers
*Highly adaptable they problem solved
A little musical break to sum up the importance of Homo Habilis
This Video shows how male Homo Habilis would compete to win over the female.
By 800,000 years ago
*We learned how to control fire
*Many different uses
-> Cooking which changed our diet
-> Source of warmth
-> A time to socialize and find comfort
-> Find safety from predators
-> To share information and share food
Homo Ergaster/Erectus
143,000 years- 1.8 mya
Northern, Eastern, Southern Africa; Western Asia; East Asia
Human-like voice, but no language.
*Huge brains
*Understood others; could share information.
*Whites to their eyes. Key communication tool
-> Especially for the women because of their eye roll
*Advanced cooling system. Less hairy and could sweat, also key to communication because you can produce sound when you’re not panting.
*Complex Stone tools.
->Took the stones and changed it to other tools
*First Species to have evidence of controlling fire.
*Erectus is Ergaster out of Africa
*Known as the longest living species, surviving 9x than our own species
*The expansion of Homo Erectus
*Shorter limbs and smaller bodies, helped to survive in cold climates.
*No imagination, but still live in groups and stronger.
*The ancestor of Neanderthalensis
*Extinct Species
*They were one of the firsts that traveled to the frigid parts of Europe
*They would hunt and would use spears to kill they're prey
Homo Heidelbergensis
200,000-700,000 years ago
Europe; Asia possibly;Africa(Eastern,Southern)
Hair
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-06/f-sf-hhw060612.php
^Check it out! Heidelbergensis were a smidge taller than Neandertals
Comparison Hedelbergensis left, neanderthals right
*Hair played an important role in human evolution because as we had less hair we gained sweat glands so we didn't have to pant to get cooled down.
The curlier and tighter your hair was it would act like a sponge and absorb your sweat and cool you faster.
The finer and straighter your hair was it would "flick" away your sweat and cool you down that way.
* Explanation!!!
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/evan.20622/pdf
Extra!
Different women hairstyles through the ages!
Homo Neanderthalensis
28,000-200,000 years ago
Europe and South Western to Central Asia
*Lived in mostly cold places
*Not a human ancestor but a cousin.
*High resistance to pain.
*Lived in Europe during the ice age, short stocky bodies, strong brow ridge, wide flat noses to warm and moisturize air.
*No imagination.
*Basics of language/communication
*First to wear clothing
*Show symbolic behavior
http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/neanderthal-behavior-59267999

*They may be the first species who buried their dead
*First Neanderthal was discovered in 1856 in Germany's Neander Valley
*John Carl Fuhlrott 1857 found bones as well
Homo Sapiens
200,000 years ago to Present
Evolved in Africa, now All over the World
*Tall
*Language
*Dark skin
*Lived in Africa about the same time as Neanderthal.
*They think ahead into the future
*Inventive
12,000 years ago
We learned that we could make and grow certain plants and animals; which led to farming and herding animals and it changed how our landscapes looked like
Human's Evolution Journey !!
By Mayra Zavala
The End!
Full transcript