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Objectively Scored Assessments of Knowledge and Simple Understanding

Did you know you can measure whether students have fragmented or cohesive conceptions of mathematics, or whether they learn at a surface- or deep-level? Did you know there are concept inventories available for research purposes at the level of prealgebra

Diane Pentico

on 13 July 2010

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Transcript of Objectively Scored Assessments of Knowledge and Simple Understanding

Objectively Scored Assessments of Knowledge and Simple Understanding Diane Pentico
Southern Utah University
EDUC 6000
Issues in Psychology and Measurement Learning for Transfer Understanding is demonstrated through application when students are able to use what they know to solve problems in a new situation. Simple Steps: Assessing Simple Understanding: Comprehension and Application
Assessing Comprehension Assessing Application Putting Tests Together Test directions should include: 1. purpose Arranging Items Order items based on how quickly they can be answered. Completion and binary-choice would generally come first. Multiple-choice and short-answer items come next. Keep all items that use the same format together "what students should know" Marzano, 1992 Knowledge Representation
Procedural Emphasizes memorization of facts, concepts, and principles Emphasizes memorization of skills, steps, and procedures Example
Items Declaratative knowledge is
“Know stuff”
such as
"What are the rules?"
"What type of equipment do I need? Procedural knowledge is demonstrated when a student ties his shoes, divides fractions, or checks out a library book. We must understand how teaching and assessing declarative knowledge (multiple choice, on-demand) is different from teaching and assessing procedural knowledge (open response, portfolio). Physical Layout of the Test Comprehension is demonstrated when students understand, in their own words, the essential meaning of a concept, principle, or procedure. - Prosser & Trigwell, 1997 Students should:
Pay attention to directions
Read each item before answering
Plan responses to essay questions
Pace themselves
Make sure students are familiar with the format and type of question and response needed on the test. Two typical test formats: multiple-choice and writing
in response to prompts. Review to
reacquaint & reemphasize Tell students when the
test is scheduled. Assessing Knowledge Suggestions Matching Completion Binary-choice Multiple-choice
Completion items Short answer Matching Short answer Binary-choice Multiple-choice Multiple-choice items are effective if they are clearly and directly stated with one correct answer, include plausible distractors, and do not provide clues to the correct answer. Multiple-Choice items are used widely in schools, even though they may not be the best method for assessing recall knowledge.
The type of mental preparation prompted by knowledge of multiple-choice items is not consistent with more contemporary theories of learning and informational processing. The most popular binary-choice item is the true/false question.
Other types of options can be right/wrong, correct/incorrect, yes/no, fact/opinion, agree/disagree, and so on. In each case the student selects one of two options.
Using binary-choice items has several advantages. Matching items effectively and efficiently measure the extent to which students know related facts, association,and relationships.
The major advantage is that the teacher can obtain a good sampling of a large amount of knowledge. Matching is easily and objectively scored. The completion item offers the least freedom of student response, calling for one answer at the end of a sentence. Responses may be in the form of words, numbers, or symbols. If properly constructed, completion items are excellent or measuring how well students can recall facts. Binary-choice items are effective if they are clearly, succinctly, and positively stated as single propositions or statements. Completion and short-answer items are effective if memorization is avoided, a single brief answer is correct, wording is understood by all students, and the specific nature and length of the answer is clearly implied.
Short-answer items are usually stated in the form of a question. They can also be stated in general directions , or in a form that requires a response.
Short-answer items are good for measuring knowledge, however, they take longer to score and they are more subjective than completion or selected-response items. Matching items are effective for assessing simple understanding of related facts or concepts as long as responses are short, premises and responses are homogeneous, lists are logically ordered, no grammatical clues are given, and no more than ten premises are in one matching item. Ready-made Assessements Are they reliable or valid? Objective test items need to be formatted so that they are easy to read and answer.

1. All the information needed to answer an item should be on the same page.
2. Don't crowd too many items onto a page.
3. The format should enhance scoring accuracy and efficiency. NOTE: For a K-12 version, look at the Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) Related subscales Fear of failure
Lack of purpose
Unrelated memorizing
Most assessments sample what students have learned, not everything that is included in your learning targets. Preparing for Summative Assessment This list of objectives is helpful because it indicates what students are responsible for learning. A minimum of ten items is needed to asssess each knowledge learning target that encompasses the unit. Representative
Sampling Prepare a test blueprint
or outline Bloom's With more specific learning targets, as few as five items can provide a good assessment. - You can get a pretty good idea if a student knows how to multiply three-digit numbers by requiring students to supply answers to five problems. Many short assessments can provide the same, if not better, information than a single long test. Number & Length of Assessments Kindergarten and 1st grade assessments usually only last five to ten minutes. Upper elementary assessments are typically between fifteen and thirty minutes. What is a good rule of thumb? ... the time allocated for assessment needs to be sufficient for all students to answer all the questions. ... and depends on the students' age, length of class, and types of questions. 68% of two-year college faculty reported at least some stress from teaching underprepared students
(Lindholm et al., 2005) Does it match what needs to be tested? Is the vocabulary and terminology at the right level for your students? Are there enough questions for reliable measure? Test items that assess knowledge can be changed easily to assess comprehension The best practice is to give your students too much time rather than too little time. Preparing Students for Summative Assessments ... increased student learning is rarely achieved if only one type of test item is used. Use the type of item that is best for maximizing
student engagement and learning. This gives students time to prepare and lessens student anxiety. taxonomy In a matching item, the items on the left are called the premises. In the right-hand column are the responses. Knowledge is best assessed with completion, short-answer, and selected-response items. 6. how constructed-response items will be scored 2. time allowed for completing the test 3. basis for responding 5. what to do about guessing 4. procedures for recording answers What is the movement of animals from one environment to another between summer and winter called?

a. conditioning
b. hibernation
c. territorial reflex
d. migration Administering Classroom Assessments Procedures Physical Environment:
Sufficient light
Appropriate temperature
Quiet sign on the door
Balance Anxiety Levels
Prevent Cheating through
Close monitoring
Special seating arrangements
Multiple forms of the test
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