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ENT600

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zaidatulhusna mohd isnani

on 28 August 2014

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Transcript of ENT600

TECHNOLOGY
ENTREPRENEURSHIP

ENT600
About Me..

Mdm Zaidatulhusna Mohd Isnani

0126927115

husna@ns.uitm.edu.my

Fakulti Pengurusan Perniagaan

Course Information

Additional components of research proposals

Proposals due at the end of the semester


Sample evaluation criteria


Methodology


Significance of the research

Draw a literature map

A description of how the research findings will be disseminated
Reliability and validity
Ethical statement
Possible problems


Depending on the research...

What do you want to do?
Why do you want to do it?
Why is it important?
Who has done similar work?
How are you going to do it?
How long will it take?

Or in plain English...

An indication of why the problem is important
A description of the research question
A review of relevant literature
A description of the proposed methodology

Core elements

This can come later
Descriptive and informative
Avoid bland titles!
Bland: Library Needs Analysis
Better: Effects of Household Income on Use and Perceptions of Library Services

Titles

Start thinking now
A substantial amount of work has to be done before a proposal can be written
Seek advice on your draft from me, and peers


When should the proposal
be written?


When should the proposal be written?

To convince others of the value of your research
To demonstrate competency
To assist you - as a planning tool

Why do I need a research proposal?


Purpose of research proposals

Again,..please don’t

Use APA style of referencing
OWL at Purdue University

Referencing

Feasibility
Do the preliminary data and the available resources support the feasibility of the project?
Impact
Does the research project have a potential social impact, i.e. promote problem solving, social /educational policy development or evaluation, etc.?


Sample evaluation criteria (cont.)

Significance:
To what extent will the research make an original contribution or be an innovative application of knowledge to its disciplinary field and/or across disciplines?

Is the proposed research likely to promote further investigation within and/or across disciplines and fields?

Sample evaluation criteria (cont.)

Approach:

To what extent are the conceptual framework and theoretical assumptions clearly stated?

Are the research design, methods of data collection and analysis appropriate to the aims of the research?

Sample evaluation criteria (cont.)

Problem Identification:
Is the problem/line of inquiry clearly identified?

Has appropriate literature been examined in order to provide a background to the problem?

Have other relevant sources been used to identify the problem?

Are the aims and/or objectives of the inquiry clearly specified?



Sample evaluation criteria

Research design
Research site
Participants
Researcher as the instruments
“bracket oneself, refrain from…..”
Data collection procedures
Data analysis

Methodology section: “qualitative” research

Hypothesis
Research design
Sampling
Measurement instruments
Data collection procedures
Data analysis

Methodology section: “traditional” empirical social research

The instrument
Provide a copy of the questionnaire/ interview protocols in the appendices
The types of data you are going to collect
Quantitative data
Will be tabulated/ graphed etc..
Qualitative data
Narrative, descriptive
Reliability and validity of instrument

What does the methodology section do? What should it contain?

The methodology section shows the reader how you are going to set about looking for answers to the research question (including materials and methods to be used)
enough detail to demonstrate that you are competent and the project is feasible
The proposed methods must be appropriate to the type of research

What does the methodology section do? What should it contain?

Practical value in solving problems
Value to policy development
Contribution to theory
Contribution to body of knowledge within discipline

The research must be of
value, e.g.

A bibliography
A series of descriptions of pieces of previous research with no apparent connection to each other or your project

The literature review is not

What are the most recent findings in your area of study?
What gaps or contradictions exist among these findings?
What new research questions do these findings suggest?
What structure suits my literature review best?
What should I leave out?

Questions to help you in compiling a literature review (cont.)

What are the broad bodies of literature that have relevance for your research topic (local and international)?
What theoretical model/s relate to your research topic?
What theories, methods & results have previous researchers in your field produced? What is the history of your area of study? (cont.)

Questions to help you in compiling a literature review

CONSENT 
HARM 
DECEPTION 
PRIVACY 

Ethics in Research

Make sure that these are meaningful, not mechanistic


Core components of research proposals


Methodology


Significance of the research

Draw a literature map


Literature review


Describing the research question


When should the proposal be written?

Proposals due at the end of the semester

Again,..please don’t

Feasibility
Do the preliminary data and the available resources support the feasibility of the project?
Impact
Does the research project have a potential social impact, i.e. promote problem solving, social /educational policy development or evaluation, etc.?


Sample evaluation criteria (cont.)

Approach:

To what extent are the conceptual framework and theoretical assumptions clearly stated?

Are the research design, methods of data collection and analysis appropriate to the aims of the research?

Sample evaluation criteria (cont.)


Sample evaluation criteria

Research design
Research site
Participants
Researcher as the instruments
“bracket oneself, refrain from…..”
Data collection procedures
Data analysis

Methodology section: “qualitative” research

Hypothesis
Research design
Sampling
Measurement instruments
Data collection procedures
Data analysis

Methodology section: “traditional” empirical social research

The methodology section shows the reader how you are going to set about looking for answers to the research question (including materials and methods to be used)
enough detail to demonstrate that you are competent and the project is feasible
The proposed methods must be appropriate to the type of research

What does the methodology section do? What should it contain?

What are the broad bodies of literature that have relevance for your research topic (local and international)?
What theoretical model/s relate to your research topic?
What theories, methods & results have previous researchers in your field produced? What is the history of your area of study? (cont.)

Questions to help you in compiling a literature review

Surveying a comprehensive range of existing material and sources in the general areas of your study
Selecting those that will be most relevant and significant for your particular project
Understanding and analyzing the central findings and arguments
Synthesizing the findings and integrating them into the research proposal
A good literature review generally contains an argument


Skills involved in producing a literature review

Provides a conceptual framework for the research
Provides an integrated overview of the field of study
Helps establish a need for the research
May help clarify the research problem
Helps to demonstrate researcher’s familiarity with the area under consideration (theory and / or methods)


What purpose does the literature review serve?

“A dependent variable is a variable that is influenced by another variable.” - weak

The term “social and ethical accounting, auditing and reporting” (SEAAR) has been used to describe a variety of practices relating to corporate social responsibility. For purposes of this study, the term will be used to refer specifically to the formal set of procedures outlined in AccountAbility 1000, while “social audit” will be used to describe the broader set of practices.- better

Sample definitions

Access to information
Access to resources
Theoretical background
Value of research
Researcher’s skills
Is question big/small enough
Overall probability of successful completion
Interest to researcher

Criteria for choosing include...

Researchers get their questions from many different places...
Observation of the world
Concern with theory
Previous research
Practical concerns
Personal interest





First find a research question!


We will do this in week 13


Core components

Too long
Poor structure, language use
Inappropriate use of technical terms
Research too ambitious
No literature review
No integration of theory in literature review
Literature review copied
No theoretical foundation

Failure indicators

Conceptual framework and theoretical assumptions clearly stated
Appropriate design and methodology
Promotes further research
Preliminary data/pilot study
Necessary resources available

Success indicators

Clearly defined research question
Appropriate literature provides a background to the problem
Use of other sources to identify/support the problem
Objectives clearly specified

Success indicators


Success and failure indicators for proposals

Often tied to the informed part of consent
Omission: withhold information
Commission: provide false information
i.e., lying
Establishing false intimacy: subject feels a high degree of comfort because he/she does not know is “on the record”
Using accomplices: someone helping the researcher that the subject doesn’t know is helping

Deception

Subjects must be protected from harm, or at the least fully informed about the potential costs and benefits resulting from the harm
Research that is physically or psychologically dangerous is generally considered unethical
Care needs to be taken with subjects who are, or consider themselves to be, relatively powerless
Children, elderly, w/ disabilities

Harm

Informed consent
Subjects must know potential risks, benefits, conditions of participation, and ability to withdraw without penalty
If consent is not informed, it can be as bad as (or worse than) not getting consent at all
Two types
Direct or Substitute (3rd party)
If the person has a legal guardian, need substitute
When in doubt, ask for permission
Consent should always be obtained in writing

Consent

CONSENT 
HARM 
DECEPTION 
PRIVACY 

Ethics in Research

A description of how the research findings will be disseminated
Reliability and validity
Ethical statement
Possible problems


Depending on the research...


Additional components of research proposals

What do you want to do?
Why do you want to do it?
Why is it important?
Who has done similar work?
How are you going to do it?
How long will it take?

Or in plain English...

Make sure that these are meaningful, not mechanistic


Core components of research proposals

This can come later
Descriptive and informative
Avoid bland titles!
Bland: Library Needs Analysis
Better: Effects of Household Income on Use and Perceptions of Library Services

Titles

Start thinking now
A substantial amount of work has to be done before a proposal can be written
Seek advice on your draft from me, and peers


When should the proposal
be written?

To convince others of the value of your research
To demonstrate competency
To assist you - as a planning tool

Why do I need a research proposal?


Purpose of research proposals


DEVELOPING RESEARCH PROPOSALS

Use APA style of referencing
OWL at Purdue University

Referencing

Significance:
To what extent will the research make an original contribution or be an innovative application of knowledge to its disciplinary field and/or across disciplines?

Is the proposed research likely to promote further investigation within and/or across disciplines and fields?

Sample evaluation criteria (cont.)

Problem Identification:
Is the problem/line of inquiry clearly identified?

Has appropriate literature been examined in order to provide a background to the problem?

Have other relevant sources been used to identify the problem?

Are the aims and/or objectives of the inquiry clearly specified?



Sample evaluation criteria

The instrument
Provide a copy of the questionnaire/ interview protocols in the appendices
The types of data you are going to collect
Quantitative data
Will be tabulated/ graphed etc..
Qualitative data
Narrative, descriptive
Reliability and validity of instrument

What does the methodology section do? What should it contain?

Practical value in solving problems
Value to policy development
Contribution to theory
Contribution to body of knowledge within discipline

The research must be of
value, e.g.

A bibliography
A series of descriptions of pieces of previous research with no apparent connection to each other or your project

The literature review is not

What are the most recent findings in your area of study?
What gaps or contradictions exist among these findings?
What new research questions do these findings suggest?
What structure suits my literature review best?
What should I leave out?

Questions to help you in compiling a literature review (cont.)

Indicate the ways in which the authors you are reviewing will be relevant to your research (information, theory, methodology)
Demonstrate that you understand the similarities and differences between these works and paradigms (Where do they stand in relation to each other? Where does your research stand in relation to them?)
If the study is cross-disciplinary or comparative you need to describe how the different areas of research can be drawn together in a meaningful way


How to write a literature review

Specify the limits of the research in a way which makes in clear what is and is not to be studied, through, for example,

definitions
time span
geographical boundaries
other limits as appropriate to the field of study

Setting the limits: boundaries

Provide explicit definitions for key concepts
Terms don’t always have single meanings understood in the same way by all
Don’t under- or overestimate your readers
Don’t provide mechanistic dictionary definitions of all terms

Setting the limits: definitions

A broad research area is not a research question
Formulate a number of possible questions, and weigh up the pros and cons
The proposal must reflect that the issues have been thought through

Choosing a research question

Weak research design
Methods not clear
Methods inappropriate
No references or bibliography
Plagiarized work


Failure indicators (cont.)

Do not fabricate, falsify or plagiarize!

Sensitivity of topic &/or data
Can responses/results affect the subject’s life if known by others
How public/private is the setting?
Public display of the data
Personally identifiable information should be removed or changed

Privacy

An indication of why the problem is important
A description of the research question
A review of relevant literature
A description of the proposed methodology

Core elements
Full transcript