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Genius Hour - The Universe

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Sophia J

on 15 June 2014

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Transcript of Genius Hour - The Universe

The Universe
The universe sums up all of existence. The known universe is about 8.8x1023km and it contains about 3.1x1054kg of matter, which includes all matter and energy (stars, planets, galaxies, atoms, interstellar space, and dark matter). Matter is distributed thinly throughout the entire universe, which leaves many areas of the plain empty.

The universe is constantly evolving. New galaxies, planets, and stars are continuously forming and falling apart. Did you know that in a few billion years, our neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy is destined for a head on collision with our own Milky Way Galaxy?

How big is the universe? It is known to be infinite, but how is that possible? If it does have a size, how does it end and what lays beyond? Let’s investigate to find out!

The Dimensions of the Universe
We usually just consider the dimensions as another reality or just as a way we see the universe. There are ten dimensions in the known universe. The first four dimensions only involve length, width, depth, and time. The remaining six are far more complicated and describe the universe itself.
The Parallel Universe
The idea of the parallel universe is that the world and people you see in front of you exist in twin or sibling universes. These universes could mirror exactly what’s happening in your life right now (for example, I could be talking about the Multiverse right now in a parallel universe) or there could be some variations like where you go to school, what your room looks like, or who your friends are. It is the idea that our known universe exists in a large, infinite bubble of universes, called the Multiverse.
I have come to the conclusion that yes, a parallel universe of ours could exist in a dimension other than the third. This is proved by the point I made earlier that our reality may be surrounded by many parallel universes, but we cannot see them, because the higher dimensions are beyond our understanding. We could possibly see a parallel universe in the third dimension.
Mysteries of the Universe
By Sophia Jong
Guiding Question

Could a parallel universe exist in a dimension other than the third?
Image from http://casperium.deviantart.com/art/Parallel-Dimensions-86183239
• http://www.universetoday.com/48619/10-dimensions/
• http://www.accessscience.com.elibrary.calgarypubliclibrary.com/content/universe/722000
• http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/04/05/freaky-physics-proves-parallel-universes/
• http://www.space.com/18811-multiple-universes-5-theories.html

A Starting Point
The starting point of everything is literally a point! It is not a dimension at all.
The First Dimension
The first dimension is length; essentially a straight line.
Image from http://www.topwallpaperphoto.com/universe-wallpaper-in-hd/
Image of the Andromeda Galaxy from http://www.karlremarks.com/2013/04/study-confirms-that-lebanon-is-indeed.html
Image from http://www.envis-precisely.com/blog/6-dimensions-of-a-user-interface/
The Second Dimension

The second dimension is width. Objects in the second dimension are only viewed as cross sections, like the shapes we use in math. Beings in the second dimension can move northward, eastward, westward, and southward, but not up or down (above and below).

Image from http://www.envis-precisely.com/blog/6-dimensions-of-a-user-interface/
Image from http://www.envis-precisely.com/blog/6-dimensions-of-a-user-interface/
The Third Dimension

We exist in the third dimension. It incorporates length, width, and height. In the third dimension, we can move in all directions. The best way to describe the third dimension is with a cube. It has length as it expands to the sides, width as it creeps back, and height/depth as it grows up.

The first three dimensions sum up to a cube. The line is the first dimension, the square is the second dimension, and the cube is the third dimension.
Image from http://www.envis-precisely.com/blog/6-dimensions-of-a-user-interface/
The Fourth Dimension
The fourth dimension is time. The easiest way for us to imagine the fourth dimension is a timeline. What did you look like on Monday? How did your appearance change over that time until Tuesday? In the fourth dimension, we humans look like long snaking creatures whose length increases every moment until our death.
Image from http://www.envis-precisely.com/blog/6-dimensions-of-a-user-interface/
The Fifth and Sixth Dimensions
The fifth and sixth dimensions are possible futures that are determined by choice. In these two dimensions, you can travel back and forward through time by folding through the dimension above.
Images from http://www.envis-precisely.com/blog/6-dimensions-of-a-user-interface/
The Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Dimensions
The seventh, eighth, and ninth dimensions describe several universes that all have their own outcomes (called "infinities") that join to make lines. This supports that parallel universes do exist.
Image from http://starchildglobal.com/starchild/ninth.html
The Tenth Dimension
Finally, the tenth dimension is all of the possible universes and infinities that are treated as one point. However, to make the actual tenth dimension, you must have a second point to connect to. The problem is, we do not have another point, because we incorporated everything in existence into the first point. So, the tenth dimension is one point that contains all possibilities in all universes.
Image from http://www.coolinfographics.com/blog/tag/dimensions
Here are five factors that support why we may live in a multiverse.
The observable universe only goes as far as light can travel. Space-time (essentially existence) is flat and it stretches out infinitely. That means that the universe begins repeating at some point, because there is an infinite number of ways the particles could be arranged in space and time. Anything in space-time that is beyond what light can reach is considered another universe.
Image from http://aasimshahpresentsfunwithphysics.blogspot.ca/2013/12/space-time-while-idea-of-space-time-is.html
Bubble Universes
After the Big Bang, all the universes began to inflate very quickly like a balloon. Some universes have stopped expanding while others continue which has resulted in an infinite number of isolated bubble universes. This theory is called "Eternal Inflation".
Image from http://www.brunchnews.com/huffington-post-uk/technology/inflation-discovery-could-confirm-existence-of-other-universes-842837
Parallel Universes
This theory states that there may be many parallel universes out there, except we cannot see/comprehend them, because they exist in dimensions higher than the third.
Image from http://i.space.com/images/i/000/024/273/i02/shutterstock_12310231.jpg?1354898748
Daughter Universes
This theory says that in the world of subatomic particles, it is possible to have more than one universe exist. These universes exist right next to our own, however, none of our parallel selves can see them, because our brains incorrectly believe that our reality is the only reality.
Mathematical Universes
It has been debated by scientists whether math just helps us understand the universe or if it is a reality itself. All possible mathematical structures could exist as its own separate universe. For example, we know there is an infinite amount of numbers that start from zero, so why could there not be an infinite number of universes? We figured out numbers to count something!
Image from www.kavlifoundation.org
It is also possible that depending on which dimension a being exists in, it could see all parallel universes in their own dimension. For example, we may see our parallel universe in the third dimension, but a being from the sixth dimension would see the same thing in sixth dimension format.
Remember, all ten dimension exist in our reality except we can only sense and thoroughly comprehend the first three. The higher dimension is always something we know exists, but cannot see.
Image from http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2011/04/newsalert-nasa-search-for-parallel-universes-dark-matter-poised-to-launch-tomorrow.html
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