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on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of Cells

1. All living things are composed of one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure of all living things.
--The lowest level of structure capable of performing all the activities of life is the cell.
--Unicellular organisms-composed of one cell
-all of life’s activities occur within that single cell.
--Multicellular organism
-each cell carries on most of the major functions of life.
3. All presently existing cells arose from previously existing cells
--Cells divide to form new cells and is the basis for cell reproduction and for the growth and repair of all multicellular organisms

Cell structure that performs a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell.
Found in Plant and Animal Cells
-Supplies the cell with energy
-site for cellular respiration

-where protein synthesis takes place
-located on the endoplasmic reticulum or cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-transports materials throughout the inside of the cell
has ribosomes attached to the surface meaning it is ribosome-studded
Rough ER
no attached ribosomes
Smooth ER
modifies, collects, packages, and distributes molecules (proteins) within the cell or outside the cell
Golgi Apparatus
-AKA plasma membrane
-encloses the cell
-regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment
-aids in protection and support of the cell
-semi-permeable-allows what it needs in and gets rid of what it does not need

Cell Membrane
-AKA nuclear envelope
-surrounds the nucleus of the cell
-regulates the passage of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Nuclear Membrane
-the "brains of the cell"
-contains the genetic material (chromosomes made of DNA)
-semi-fluid material inside the cell containing molecules and the organelles
-bound by the cell membrane
-store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
-much smaller in animal cells
-plants have a large central vacuole
-contain chlorophyll-green pigment
-uses sunlight to create food through photosynthesis
-surrounds the cell membrane for protection and support
-allows some substances to pass in and out of the cell
-also found in bacteria, fungi, and some protists
Cell Wall
Found in Plant Cells Only
Found in Animal Cells Only
contain enzymes to help digest (break down) food
short hair-like projections responsible for movement of animal cells or protists
long whip-like projections responsible for the movement of some animal cells, bacteria, or protists
Prokaryotic Cells
-DO NOT have a true nucleus
-DNA is not completely separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane and is not arranged in strands (chromosomes)
-DO NOT have membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic Cell
-has a TRUE nucleus
-DNA is organized into chromosomes
-chromosomes are separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane
-have membrane bound organelles
-animal, plant, fungi, and protist
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
Prokaryotic cells
-do not have most of the organelles found in a eukaryote
-do not contain mitochondria
-get energy from the sunlight or chemicals in the environment
-DO have ribosomes for protein synthesis
-are unicellular organisms--such as bacteria
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