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Defining ID&T

Since beginning the Course IDT 7052, we have been working on developing our very own definition of IDT. Here is a visual representation of my IDT definition.
by

Jacque Bradford

on 1 June 2015

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Transcript of Defining ID&T

Defining ID&T
Educational Technology
Thoughts that molded my definition:
AECT's 1963, 1977, and 1994 definitions of educational and instructional technology (Hlynka, 2013)
AECT 2008 Definition: "requires continual knowledge construction and refinement through research and reflective practice, which are encompassed in the term study" (Januszweski & Molenda, 2007, p. 1)
Common sense: "things of learning" - Armsey and Dahl (Hlynka, 2013)
Impact: Behaviorism, Programmed Instruction, Cognitive theories, and Constructivism
Instructional Design
Most definitions focus on process or function
"instructional planning activity" including?
process -
Smith & Ragan
function -
Gustafson & Branch
process and function combined -
Richey, Klein & Tracey
Rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology
(Instructional design, n.d.)
Merrill, 1966:
"a technology which incorporates known and verified learning strategies into instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective and appealing"
Technology is media, and when used in conjunction with learning is educational technology
"practical implementations of intelligence" - Frederick Ferre, 1995
"If God didn't invent it, then it is technology" (Hlynka, 2013)
ID&T Defined:
Upon Module 1:
3 weeks ago
TECHNOLOGY:
the study and use of computer-based tools to complete a task

EDUCATION:
the general process of teaching and learning a topic or series of topics

LEARNING:
the process of acquiring and retaining information

INSTRUCTION:
the formal practice of presenting and engaging a student or students in material with the common goal of learning

Philosophical and Psychological Implications for Instructional Design
Instructional science is philosophically and psychologically based
The philosophical connections are not clear as the psychological connections
"The nature of what is being learned has significant influence on the design of instruction to support learning" (Spector, 2001, p. 390)
supported by Merrill and Gagne
Philosophical Instructional Design Model: Model Facilitated Learning (MFL)
(Spector, 2001)
Human Performance Technology
emerged from educational technology in the 1950s -1960s
related to process improvement methodologies
systematic approach to improving individual and organizational performance
Finn's Characteristics of a Profession
Finn's 6 characteristics of a profession influenced the 1963 AECT definition of "Audiovisual Instruction"
A profession should be founded upon intellectual theory and research
Finn did not believe that the audiovisual field met this criterion: organized body of intellectual research and theory
This notion motivated Finn to pursue further research to support our field
"How to help people learn better. That is what instructional theory is all about."
(Spector, 2001, p. 392)
TEACHING:
the method of assisting a subject with learning a topic or topics

DESIGN:
the foundation or presentation of something
3 major contributors to my definition:
"
a change in a learner's dispositions and capabilities
" - Gagne, 2005
"
acquiring knowledge and skills
" - Donovan and Bransford, 2005
"
an active, constructive process whereby the learner strategically manages the available cognitive resources to create new knowledge by extracting information from the environment and integrating it with information already stored in the memory" (
Kozma, 1991)
(Januszewski & Persichitte, 2007)
Hlynka, 2013
Hlynka, 2013
(Human performance technology, n.d.)
Process Improvement Methodologies
Human performance technology, n.d.)
Process Improvement Methodologies
Lean Mgmt.; Six Sigma
Organization Development
Motivation
Instructional Technology
Human Factors
Learning
Human Performance Technology
Knowledge Management
Training
Focused on improving performance at the societal, organizational, process and individual performer levels
(Spector, 2001)
Instructional Technology
Instructional Theory
Performance Technology
Grounded by:
Cognitive apprenticeship: Collins, 1991
Cognitive complexity: Spiro, 1987
Collaborative learning: Salomon, 1988
Elaboration theory: Reigeluth & Stein, 1983
Problem-based learning: Barrows, 1985
Situated learning: Lave, 1988
Initial Thoughts
Definition of Learning
"The primary purpose of instructional design is to facilitate learning and improve performance" (Richey Klein, & Tracy)
My Definition of Learning:
a process or response to intentional or unintentional instruction that combines new knowledge and/or performance with existing knowledge to elicit semi-permanent or permanent knowledge or skill
(Driscoll, 2013)
Learning
My Definition of Educational Technology:
the practice of study involving the enhancement of learning and performance through the use of educational media and methodology
a field of study founded on philosophical and psychological theories that utilizes educational instruction methods and often instructional media to promote learning in the context of acquiring new knowledge and skills in an efficient, effective and appealing manner.
IDT 7052
Jacque Bradford
Educational Technology
Instructional Design
References:
What does the future hold for ID&T?
Room for growth in research with research goals focused on development
Development of instructional design based on theory and not based on technology innovations (as history teaches us)
Questions that remain unanswered:
Is the field of ID&T a science or an art?
Does media influence learning?
Is fully guided instruction more effective than optimally guided instruction?
Full transcript