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Working Memory (ii)

X4062: M O&S - Lecture 3

Stephen Darling

on 5 March 2018

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Transcript of Working Memory (ii)

Process: The Memory Event
Structure: Long and Short Term Memory
Implicit Memory & Explicit Memory
Semantic Memory and Episodic Memory

Storage / Retention

Lecture 1
X4073 Memory: Origins & Structures
Thank you for signing up for this module
I Love Paris
Writer(s): cole porter

I love paris in the spring time
I love paris in the fall
I love paris in the summer when it sizzles
I love paris in the winter when it drizzles

I love paris every moment
Every moment of the year
I love paris, why oh why do I love paris
Because my love is here
Dichotomies of Memory
The Memory Event
if illegible
Failure at encoding
Outcome: Forgetting
Not Degraded
if degraded
Failure at retention/storage
Outcome: Forgetting
if illegible
Failure at encoding
Causes encoding-retrieval interaction
Outcome: Forgetting
if lost
Failure at retrieval
Outcome: Forgetting
Multiple Kinds of Memory
Sensory Memory
Short Term Memory
Long Term memory
Sensory / Iconic Memory
Sperling (1960, 1963)
Fast Decay
Decay modified by masking
Short Term Memory
Effortful storage of information over brief durations (seconds, not minutes or hours)
Storage of random, unrelated information (often)
Telephone numbers
Digit Span
Lectures 2 and 3: 'Working Memory'
Long Term Memory
Long Term
Memory (LTM)
Episodic Memory
Semantic Memory
Conditioning, skills,
priming (etc.)
Diagram after Squire (1992)
Long Term Memory
Long Term
Memory (LTM)
Episodic Memory
Semantic Memory
Conditioning, skills,
priming (etc.)
Diagram after Squire (1992)
Memory that occurs without a conscious effort at encoding, retention or retrieval
Implicit Memory
Procedural / Skill Learning
Serial Reaction Time
Image: Clark & Ivry, 2010
Pursuit Rotor
Milner, 1962; Milner, Corkin, & Teuber,
Mirror writing
Nissen et al (1987)
Dual task
Amnesic Patients
Increased sensitivity to certain stimuli due to prior exposure
Visual Word Priming:
Study list (can be implicit or explicit)
Retrieval (always implicit):
Stem completion: FOR__________
Fragment completion: A_a_i_n
Brief duration word identification (35 ms)
Lexical decision (word/nonword): Quork, Naval etc.
Facilitation in accuracy and/or RT
'Study' phase
'Test' phase
'Study' phase
'Test' phase
Truck (not
or even Van
Or even...
Graf, Shimamura Squire, J exp psychol gen, 1985
Associative Link
Linked by frequent co-occurrence
Lennon - McCartney
Castle - Knight
Chair - Table
Particularly common for People
Categorical Link
Linked by shared category membership
Lennon - Bono
Chair - Cupboard
Castle - Church
Associative links may also be categorical
Categories previously thought to be unimportant for people as opposed to objects (Barry, Johnston & Scanlan, 1998)
Evidence for categorical priming for familiar people: Carson & Burton, 2001
Tulving, Schacter & Stark (1982), J Exp Psychol: Learning Memory Cognition, 17, 595-617.
if illegible
Failure at encoding
Causes encoding-retrieval interaction
Outcome: Forgetting
Explicit (Declarative Memory): Memory for specific events or facts. What we would usually 'think of' as memory
Explicit Memory
Events and Knowledge: Episodic and Semantic Memory
Semantic Memory (Knowledge)
Paris is the capital of france
The Louvre is a museum there
Nicolas Sarkozy is president
I Remember Visiting Paris in the Springtime last year
We had coffee outside the Louvre. It was Expensive and did not taste nice. Molly dropped her croissant and a dog ate it.
I remember I was driving to Bristol when I heard that Nicolas Sarkozy had been made president.
Episodic Memory (Events)
'Mental Time Travel'
Episodic Memory and Semantic Memory: Segregation?
Episodic Memory and the Brain
Wheeler, Stuss & Tulving (1997)
Autonoetic (self-knowing) awareness
Noetic (Knowing) awareness
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage related to specific episodic memory defecits
Source amnesia in PFC patients
et al, 1989)
Tulving, Kapur, Craik, Moscovitch & Houle (1994)
HERA: Hemispheric Encoding and Retrieval Hypothesis
Left hem, strongly involved in verbal encoding, right in retrieval
Only verbal material: Nonverbal encoding activated right PFC (Wagner, Schacter, Rotte, Koutstaal, Maril, Dale et al, 1998)
Verbal Encoding
Episodic Retrieval
Brewer et al 1998
et al 1998
Taxi drivers (compared to bus drivers):
Greater gray matter volume in mid-posterior hippocampi
Less in anterior
Complex and effective spatial representation of London
At expense of capacity reduction for new visuo-spatial learning.
Changes in brain structure due to behaviour?
Semantic Memory
Semantic Networks
Collins and Quillian, 1969: Heirarchical Model
A canary is yellow: Quicker RT
A canary can fly: Slower RT

Answer by inference to category descriptor
Did Leonardo da vainci have knees?
Rigid Categories are problematic
eg. Rosch (1973)
Birds eat worms
I hear a bird singing
I watched a bird fly over the house
Penguin, Ostrich, Robin, Eagle
Collins and Loftus, 1975: Spreading Activation
Activation spreads to other, closely related, concepts
Associational relationships, not heirarchical
Schema Theory
War of the Ghosts

One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries, and they thought: "Maybe this is a war-party". They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said:

"What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people."

One of the young men said,"I have no arrows."

"Arrows are in the canoe," they said.

"I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you," he said, turning to the other, "may go with them."

So one of the young men went, but the other returned home.

And the warriors went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say, "Quick, let us go home: that Indian has been hit." Now he thought: "Oh, they are ghosts." He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot.

So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: "Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick."

He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried.

He was dead.
Bartlett (1932)
Effort after meaning
Remembered story shorter, more cohgerent and fit with participant's own viewpoint
A structured long-term representation that can be used to make sense of the story / reduce the amount of detail required to be remembered
Schema's can nest and form complex networks of semantic information
Semantic Memory
Collins and Quillian, 1969
A canary is yellow
A canary can fly

'A canary is yellow' recognised faster
Rosch (1973)
eat worms
I hear a
I watched a
fly over the house
was perching on the twig
penguin, ostrich, eagle, robin
Heirarchical categories are
limiting/ problematic
Collins & Loftus, 1975: Spreading Activation
Based on association, rather than rigid
Schacter et al (1996)
DRM paradigm (Deese, Roediger, McDermott)
Nurse, Sick, Hospital, Patient
'Doctor' causes very similar activation both when and when not incorrectly recalled by participants
Brewer & Treyens (1981)
35 seconds waiting in a room like this
Tested for memory of objects in room (recognition memory test)
Several items in room: some schema consistent, some not
Schema consistent items remembered better
Foils that were incorrectly 'recognised' nearly all schema-consistent.
'There is no known method of readily encoding information into an adult's semantic memory without putting corresponding information into episodic memory, or vice versa' (Wheeler et al, 1997, p333.)
Episodic memory involves subjective experience of recollecting past events ('mental time travel'.
Semantic memory does not.
Prefrontal cortex is much more involved in episodic than semantic memory
Amnesic patients: Preserved language skills, vocabulary, grammar, preserved intelligence test performance - Semantic memory preserved?
But - all could be learnt before the onset of amnesia
Amnesia - may make it hard to establish new episodic or semantic memories
Knowlton and Squire (1995): Remember/Know: Amnesics impaired at both semantic and episodic recall.
Some evidence that there are patients with poor episodic memory but preserved semantic memory. Episodic memory recruits a broader hippocampal and parahippocampal network than semantic? A Single dissociation: Vargha-Khadem et al, 1997.
Rake - Plunder
Trundle - Lollipop
Bitter - Lunacy
Fiddle - Ruler
Bitter ________________
Fiddle ________________
Trundle ________________
Free Recall
Cued Recall
Baddeley, A. Eysenck, M.W., Anderson, C. 'Memory'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 1, 5, 6 and 11
Eysenck, M.W., Keane, M. 'Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 6 & 7.
Reading & References
Poorly Encoded
Failure of retrieval caused by incompatible encoding
Outcome: Forgetting
Preparation Work
For next week (Tutorial)
Read references highlighted in RED
Read textbook chapters
Listen to BBC 'Mind Changers' programme
Come ready to discuss and answer questions on this material
For 2 weeks time (Lecture)
Read Baddeley Papers:
Baddeley, A.D., Allen, R.J., & Hitch, G.J. (2011). Binding in visual working memory: The role of the episodic buffer. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1393-1400
Baddeley, A.D. (2000) The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 4, 11, 417-423.
Lecture 1
Short Term and Working Memory
Memory Span
Short Term Memory
Effortful storage of information over brief durations (seconds, not minutes or hours)
Storage of random, unrelated information (often)

Remembering things over hours or days often thought of as 'short term memory', but actually, to psychologists, this represents LTM
STM: 'The key process of storing small amounts of information over a brief interval' (Baddeley, 2009, p20)
Adrian M. Owen: http://web.me.com/adrian.owen/site/Home.html
The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information[1]

George A. Miller (1956)
Harvard University

First published in Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.

Characteristics of STM
Phonological Similarity
Conrad & Hull, 1964
Phonological coding in STM
Input Modality either verbal or visual (see e.g. Baddeley, Thomson & Buchanan, 1975)
Short-Term and Long-Term Memory?
Rapid fading of STM memory trace
Postman & Phillips, 1965
No recency
Segregation of LTM & STM
Articulatory Supression
Patient HM (Milner, 1966)
Classic Amnesia
Preserved digit span (STM) but impaired LTM
More similar patients (Baddeley and Warrington, 1970)
Patient KF (Shallice & Warrington, 1970)
Impaired STM (Verbal) but preserved LTM
More similar patients (Vallar & Shallice, 1990; PV - Basso et al, 1982: Vallar & Baddeley, 1987)
Baddeley, 1966
Articulatory supression (Levy, 1971; Baddeley at al, 1975)
Impairs verbal memory by preventing subvocal rehearsal
Word Length Effect
Memory span higher for short words than long words
Suggests a time limited rather than word-limited system
Languages (Welsh, Italian, Chinese: eg. Ellis and Hennelley, 1980)
Serial Order
Visuo-Spatial STM
Segregation of Spatial and Visual WM
Logie & Marchetti (1991), Hecker and Mapperson (1997), Tresch, Sinnamon and Seamon (1993), Klauer and Zhao (2004), Darling, Della Sala & Logie (2009)
Digit span tasks, crucially require memory for SERIAL ORDER
Serial order memory seems to be a characteristic feature of STM
Not clear how serial order works
Various theories, 'chaining' supported less well
Irrelevant Sound effect
Irrelevant sounds impair immediate serial memory BUT
Only if they are speech like
Foreign language YES, Unpatterned ('white') noise NO (Colle and Welsh, 1976)
Nonsense syllables YES (Salame & Baddeley, 1982)
Music YES - Vocal music more than instrumental (Salame & Baddeley, 1989)
Changing tones - YES: Changing state bypothesis: Jones, Macken, Murray, 1993)
Primacy Model (Page and Norris, 1998)
Links to first and last items (Henson, 1998)
Ongoing context model (Burgess & Hitch, 1999, 2006)
Page & Norris (2003)
Serial order mechanism separate from mechanism storing items - hence irrelevant sound has no effect on serial order memory, even if irrelevant sounds are similar to the TBR (to-be-remembered) material.
Remember WHERE

Remember WHAT
Spatial STM (Posner & Konick, 1966)
Visual STM / 'Object' STM
(Vogel, Woodman, Luck, 2001)
4 item capacity of object memory
Corsi Blocks Task (Corsi, 1972/Milner 1971)
Visual Patterns Task (Della Sala, Gray, Baddeley, Allamano & Wilson, 1999)
See Goldman-Rakic (1995) Ann NY Acad Sci or (1996) Phil Trans RS London
Introducing Working Memory
The trouble with the Modal Model
Level of Processing
Serial Processes to LTM
Independence of cognitive processing and verbal memory
Working Memory - A Solution
Egg and Box
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Meaningfulness of a stimulus, hence memory, dictated by amount of processing carried out on it
Modal model (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968): access to LTM by length of time in STM: rehearsal is the mechanism involved in transfer to LTM
Incompatible with: Patient KF / Patient HM double dissociation
New learning (of any sort) should be impossible in patients with impaired STM
Reasoning, comprehension and other complex activities should be impaired in patients with STM deficits
This is not the case (See, e.g. Vallar & Shallice, 1990)
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Greater memory load does not impact performance of a processing task (verbal reasoning)
Cannot be accounted for by a single, unitary STM+Processing system
Phonological Loop
Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad
Central Executive
Alan Baddeley (and many others) at the GoCognitive YouTube channel
Preparation Work
For next week (Tutorial)
For 2 weeks time (Lecture)
Read Baddeley Papers: (See Lecture 1 prep. HERE)
Read: Cowan, N. (2010). The magical mystery four: How is working memory capacity limited, and why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 51-57. Download from http://web.missouri.edu/~cowann/pubs.html
Read: Engle, R. W. (2010) The role of working memory capacity in cognitive control. Current Anthropology, 51, No. S1, Working Memory: Beyond Language and Symbolism, S17-S26.
Baddeley, A. Eysenck, M.W., Anderson, C. 'Memory'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 2 and 3
Eysenck, M.W., Keane, M. 'Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 6, 7 & 8.
Reading & References
Why does there need to be a distinction?
Lecture 2
Working Memory
Verbal Short Term Memory
A temporary store AND a verbal rehearsal process
Phonological similarity effect
Word length effect
Irrelevant sound effects (vocal music/ changing state)
Utility of the Phonological Loop
Phonological loop an aid to comprehension?
Language Comprehension
PL essential for learning language
Language Learning
Maintaining instructions or control of action
Action Control
PV (Vallar & Baddeley, 1987)
Verbal STM deficit (pure): Digit span around 2
LTM, IQ, daily functioning preserved
Some comprehension difficulties, but with very long sentences only
Nonwords: ballop, woolgamic, contramponist
Gathercole & Baddeley (1989): Strong correlation of nonword repetition and vocabulary (r = .525)
Baddeley, Chincotta & Adlam, 2001
4 (+) 2 (-) 1 (+) 6...
Emerson & Miyake, 2003
Saeki and Saito, 2004
Task switching paradigms
AR Luria (1902 - 1977)
Baddeley, 2000
Fluid Systems
Crystallised systems
Executive Control of Cognitive Subsystems
Not a memory system itself
Darling, Della Sala, Gray, Trivelli (1998)
Towse & Houston-Price (2001)
Norman: Slips of Action (Singapore Airlines SQ006)
Shallice: Frontal Lobe Patients
Utilisation behaviour
Attention and control functions attributed to the Central Executive of Working Memory in particular
Complex Cognitive Tasks
Dividing Attention
General Processor
SAS (Supervisory Attentional System)
'General cognitive resource'
Not modality specific
Not a memory structure - a processor
See individual differences approach to WM (later / next time)
'Residual ignorance' component
A controller or manager
CE is (critically) NOT a memory component
But who is managing the manager?
LTM: Working memory does not exist in isolation
How does WM interact with language, knowledge and LTM?
Baddeley (2000) TICS model
Working Memory Model Problems
(Baddeley, 2000, TICS)
Phonological Loop
Articulatory supression not catastrophic to performance
Some patients with verbal STM deficit (capacity ~1 item) have much higher capacity with visual presentation: Some storage elsewhere?
Cross-Modal patterns suggesting interaction between slave systems
Visual similarity effects on verbal memory tasks (Logie, Della Sala, Wynn & Baddeley, 2000)
Visuospatial Bootstrapping (Darling & Havelka, 2010; Darling, Havelka, Allen, Campbell, Rattray, in press)
Prose Recall and 'chunking'
Imagery (Baddeley and Andrade, 2000)
Image vividness (conscious perception of visual images) related strongly to LTM
The 'Binding Problem'
How are links between separate representations in different stores maintained?
Phonological loop plays an important role in long term language learning (vocabulary in children, foreign language learning etc.)
Hence interactions with LTM seem to be important in working memory
'...a limited capacity
storage system that is capable of integrating information from a variety of sources.
It is assumed to be controlled by the central executive
, which is capable of retrieving information from the store in the form of
conscious awareness
, of reflecting on that information, and, where necessary, manipulating and modifying it.' Baddeley, 2000, p421.
The episodic buffer (EB) glues material in different stores together where necessary.
Baddeley, Allen, Hitch (2011) Revision
Buffer is
Operates without CE /
Sits at interface of modality specific slave systems. Much more clearly pitched as an intermediary between modality specific subsystems and executive processing.
Maintains and clarifies segregation between processing (CE) and storage (EB) functions of modality nonspecific WM processes.
Preparation for tutorial Week 26
Make sure you have done the previously recommended reading: Baddeley (2000), Baddeley et al (2011), Cowan (2010) and Engle (2010). Also read Darling et al (1998) and Towse & Hudson-Price (2001)
Preparation for Lecture Week 29
Logie, R.H. (1995). 'Visuo-Spatial Working Memory'. Hove: LEA.
Chapters 1, 3, 4 and 6.
Chapter 4 to be scanned and will be available in WebCT
Preparation for Lecture Week 27 and Tutorial Week 28
Preparatory reading for these classes will be posted on WebCT. Please make sure you check regularly and do any necessary preparation.
Norman & Shallice, 1980 - Described by Shallice, 1982
Lecture 4
Autobiographical Memory
Dr Carolyn Choudhary

Lecture 3
Revisiting and Reevaluating Working Memory
The Visual and the Spatial
Logie & Marchetti (1991)
Sequence memory task
memory task
Tapping task
Irrelevant pictures
'Experimental Double Dissociation'
Tresch, Sinnamon & Seamon (1993)
Dot location memory
Random geometric shape
Movement discr.
Colour discrimination
'Experimental Double Dissociation'
Hecker & Mapperson 1997
Location sequence memory task
Colour sequence memory task
Tapping task
Irrelevant pictures
'Experimental Double Dissociation'
Replicated and extended: Klauer & Zhao (2004)
Logie (1995) Model
Visual Cache
Refreshed by inner scribe
Scribe requires resources
Evidence of separation of visual and spatial WM consistent with this model
Holistic / simultaneous
Sequential / unit by unit
Goldman-Rakic (1995) Model
Memory for LOCATION
Different primary tasks
Different interference tasks
Picture unclear
Klauer and Zhao (2004)
Extensive replication of Tresch et al
Ruled out possible recall/recognition differences as cause of dissociation
Supports appearance/location
'Experimental Double Dissociation'
Letter 'P' Tasks
30 Random Squares
Each could be filled by a letter 'P'
Letter 'P's from one of around 400 fonts
Verbal labelling prevented: all 'P'
Remember: either LOCATION or APPEARANCE
Darling, Della Sala, Logie (2007)
Darling, Della Sala, Logie, Cantagallo (2006)
Single letter 'P'
Remember location
Remember Appearance
Tapping task
'Experimental Double Dissociation'
Based on LATENCY (RT)
When there is NO difference in sequentiality
A neuropsychological double dissociation (Accuracy)
Darling, Della Sala, Logie (2009)
Multiple letter 'P'
Remember location
Remember Appearance
Present as sequential
Present as simultaneous
Tapping task
'Cognitive Processing'
'Journal of Neurology'
'Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology'
Double dissociation on basis of appearance/location
No double dissociation on basis of sequentiality
Sequentiality does NOT interact with interference task, but appearance/location does
Evidence seems more consistent with appearance / location dichotomy
Cache / Scribe model seems less likely (how can there be a double dissociation)?
BUT none of the presented research (Darling & colleagues, Klauer & Zhao) specifically asked for retention of order (as in the Corsi task)
SO: Retention of serial position may be a separate case.
Tentative Conclusions
Is WM really subdivided?
Cowan's approach: 'Embedded Processes Model'
Individual Differences: The Durability of Attention (Engle, 2010)
Image: Mizuno (2005)
Working Memory: 'the few temporarily active thoughts'
Cowan, 2010
(1) Without disputing the importance of functional dissociations (such as visual/verbal), it is helpful to adopt a general approach de-emphasisingmodularity. Hence the idea of temprary activation replaces that of discrete buffers

(2)The 'focus of attention' (FOA) is a subset of activated memory. Many processes, both automatic and executive, can control the scope of the FOA

(3) New episodic links can be formed and entered into LTM. This process presumably requires the focus of attention

(4) LTM, or activated WM is not capacity limited, but the FOA is. It has a capacity limit of 3-5 items.

(5) Storage and processing both require the FOA. Hence there can be a conflict between storage and processing aspects of tasks.

(6) FOA is zoomable to focus on particularly complex tasks (such as retention of full detail of a single item against interference) or to maximize capacity at expense of detail (3-5 items max)
Cowan, 2005 ('Working Memory Capacity')
Storage specific capacity
'My problem is that I have been persecuted by an integer.' (Miller, 1956, p81)
Processing related capacity
The basic information capacity of the working memory system
The capacity of items that can be stored in the system once processes which can assist memory have been recruited
e.g. 'Chunking' or 'Bootstrapping'
Articulatory Supression - Residual Capacity
Chen & Cowan, 2009
Storage - specific capacity 3-5 chunks of information.
Compare with visual memory data - Vogel, Woodman & Luck, 2001
Central storage capacity
FOA capacity
??? Episodic Buffer ???
Re-evaluating the modal model
Working Memory: A Trait/State Variable
Low reliability of 'simple' span tasks (e.g. digit span) - Dempster and Corkill, 1999
Low predictive validity (Crowder, 1982)
There are as many domain specific stores as there are ways of thinking (Engle, 2010)
Complex Span (based on Daneman & Carpenter, 1980)
High correlation with Raven's Matrices (Gf - Engle, 2010)
Working Memory Capacity (WMC)
A trait and state variable
Reflects attentional control, NOT capacity
A single, domain-general construct integrating aspects of LTM and STM
Logie (1995)
Discrete WM processes extract information from LTM ("Knowledge Base")
Preserves modality specific distinctions of Baddeley / Hitch model
Predates episodic buffer
Chunking/LTM influences on STM
(Many of the same considerations leading to Cowan's ideas)
Reading & Preparation
Reading for this week's material:
Logie, R.H. (1995). 'Visuo-Spatial Working Memory'. Hove: LEA. Chapters 1, 3, 4 and 6.
Baddeley (2000), Baddeley et al (2011), Cowan (2010) and Engle (2010).
For Next Week:
Stuart may post preparatory reading on the hub - please look out for it.
Baddeley, Thomson & Buchanan, 1975 (Experiment VII)
Lecture 6
Adaptive Memory
Dr Stuart Wilson

Lecture 4 Reference List
Full transcript