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Interprofessional Practice

An introduction to Interprofessional Practice

ailsa buckley

on 5 October 2012

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Transcript of Interprofessional Practice

What is
Interprofessional Practice? What can I do to make it work?
Enablers Barriers :
What are some of the 'roadblocks' to interprofessional practice? What will I need to do?
Recommendations for successful interprofessional practice Find out more...
Readings When would Interprofessional
practice be useful? could we consult with? Open Attitude Image retrieved from
IPP - Values,Processes,Outcomes

•Ensuring honesty – with other professionals and/or with whanau and students
•Agendas are clear and not ‘hidden’
•Roles and responsibilities are clearly defined
•Professional standards are maintained
•All team members are aware of what each person is responsible for
•Whanau know who to ask when seeking help
•Whanau feel safe
•Team members feel safe and valued
•Cooperation – professionals work together for the good of the student and whanau
•Maintain a climate of professionalism
•Ensure all team members efforts are acknowledged
•Communicating clearly and openly
•Sharing of information
•Improving partnerships
•Goals are defined and agreed upon
•Students needs are met
•Whanau needs are met
•Team members ideas are accepted without criticism
•All information is shared with others involved with the child/whanau
•Problems are solved
•Interprofessional learning is supported
•Respect for the child, their whanau, other professionals
•Listening uncritically http://prezi.com/-a8hcx2xnoxb/assessing-professional-collaboration/ When there are learning concerns when there are health concerns If the whanau need support PONO - Expertise and knowledge:
•Have specific knowledge to share with others, willingly and openly. “Interprofessional education occurs when professionals from different areas learn
with, from and about each other to develop a shared understanding of their different areas of practice. A shared understanding enables teachers and other professionals to work together constructively, resulting in effective interprofessional practice” (Mentis et al., 2012, p.1).
•Expertise and/or skills are readily accessible to enable the best possible outcomes for the student
•Experience is needed in either education or the position and this is shared within the partnership of equality
•Collective wisdom from a variety of professionals benefits all
•Each professional will bring a different perspective to the issue
Mentis, M., Kearney, A., & Bevan-Brown, J. (in press). Interprofessional learning as a model for inclusive education. In S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.), Teaching in inclusive communities. Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons. AROHA- What values do we share?•Client information with a wide range of professionals – in health and education – to enable goals to be created•That a good team is built on relationships.
“Values and ethical competencies comprise working with others to uphold a climate of mutual respect and shared values” (Mentis et al., 2012, p.5).•Openness about how we work•An ability to say “Tell me about ….”•Like minds•Wanting to benefit the child holistically •That the child is the heart of the matter PONO - How and who we work with interprofessionally?

• With teachers, teacher aides, teaching staff to share and clarify information to enhance the child’s learning. “A shared understanding enables teachers and other professionals to work together constructively, resulting in effective interprofessional practice. Interprofessional education and interprofessional practice is not just ‘team-work’ — it goes deeper than this to include collaboration and an understanding of a range of perspectives.” (Mentis et al., 2012, p.1)
• By making referrals to other professionals and agencies
• Working with the whanau and child as advocates
• General school liaison
• Lawyers, CYFS, the Police – trusting and having confidence in them
• Sharing information with OT’s, PT’s, SLT’s, RTD’s and RTV’s, medical staff, SE, RTLB’s
• Whanau as they have the most information, knowledge and skills to share - they know their child best
• Parental involvement in all stages of discussion with equal roles
• Kaitakawaenga –can attend meetings and be referred to for support
Mentis, M., Kearney, A., & Bevan-Brown, J. (in press). Interprofessional learning as a model for inclusive education. In S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.), Teaching in inclusive communities. Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons. TIKA, AROHA, PONO - Why do we meet?

• To put action plans into place – this is vital for best practice
• The more pertinent information available, the easier it is to understand the bigger picture for the child across different settings
• To link and generalise goals across settings and the next steps needed to get there
• To discuss what is happening at home and school for the child
• To provide a wrap-around service
• For joint assessment
• Meeting with professionals helps when discussing individual cases as each has a different point of view.
• Considering new or alternative ideas – this could be the breakthrough for the child. “Collaborative decision making is at the heart of supporting all students with special education needs. The student and their classmates, parents/caregivers, whānau, and communities are supported to be active participants in the IEP team and process. All educators involved in a student’s learning are included” (cited in Specialist Teaching Domain, 2012).
• To share the pockets of knowledge we all have
• To share understanding of the child’s needs
• Providing clarity around roles and responsibilities moving forward
• As a group with a common purpose, listening to views, making a case, looking at research or literature to come to a common understanding
• To clarify confusions, up-skill others and provide a stronger support package
• To bring all the information together
• To work innovatively with others as each group of experts have pockets of information – gives more weight and power to decisions made.
• As advocates and liaisons for the whanau AROHA - Cultural perspectives:

• Know that your approach is different for each family – understand their customs and culture and the roles of people within the culture
• Ask the parents if they need a support person or an interpreter
• Help people to value their own cultural identity, particularly around their home language
• Cultural competence depends on the attitude of the professional
• Have a Kaitakawaenga or other support person attend hui and do a cultural profile. “…. advantages of having professionals from the same culture are that the student with learning difficulties can relate better to the person working with them; they provide good role models to the student and family; they are more likely to be able to speak the first language of the family and have an understanding of the impact cultural beliefs and practices have on the student’s learning needs; they can lessen the student’s and family’s suspicion and mistrust of professionals which is often a consequence of previous adverse experiences; and they can advocate for the family and help counter power imbalances (Bevan-Brown, 2009; Grossman, 1995)” (in Mentis, et al., 2012, p.7).
• Have empathy with the student – understand the experiences and values they bring with them
• Have multi cultural people in service providers
Mentis, M., Kearney, A., & Bevan-Brown, J. (in press). Interprofessional learning as a model for inclusive education. In S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.), Teaching in inclusive communities. Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons. AROHA, PONO - What does a collaborative approach look like?

• Being part of a team that plans and organises service agreements
• Ensuring the service is client focussed
• Placing yourself strategically within the team to contribute your strengths
• Having a variety of roles, being knowledgeable about what you can contribute or offer. “Using the knowledge and agency of one’s own role as well as the knowledge of other professionals for the benefit of the focus of the team (i.e. the student and their family) is identified as an essential competency for effective interprofessional practice (IECP, 2011)” (in Mentis et al., 2012, p.5).
• Respecting that each role has equal value - this is incredibly valuable for parents
• Having a positive team attitude by valuing others contributions
• Respecting and acknowledging each others skills
• Knowing the purpose of the meeting
• Involving everyone and sharing understanding of your purpose
• Collective interprofessional wisdom benefits and brings different perspectives.
• Accepting different perspectives as the more voices, the better the outcomes for the student
• Being flexible and respectful of others thinking. Being prepared to challenge your own thinking and change your point of view
• Being open- minded
• Having skills to make others feel comfortable so they participate, ask questions or seek clarification
• Focussing on the potential and preserving the well being of participants for the safety of the interprofessional process
• Meeting regularly to discuss what is happening for the child and whanau
• Learning from others
• Facilitating and attending courses to up-skill self and others and learning with, from and about
• Being open to challenging and broadening your thoughts
• Knowing that face-to-face meetings and working collaboratively, produces the best outcomes for the child through group problem solving. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ay-Bq67rglM AROHA, PONO - How to provide support for the teacher:

• Support the teacher to support those extra needs and implementation of ideas realistically – KISS principle (mental models of thinking: 6-12)
• Respectfully encourage them to share knowledge
and ideas
• Ensure they see you as a team member
• Understand their needs – time constraints, limited training or skills – make it workable for them
• Prioritise what needs to be addressed and set time frames AROHA, PONO, TIKA - How to provide support for the child and whanau:

• Be an advocate for the child
• Have a working knowledge of the conditions affecting the child’s learning and general well–being
• Prioritise what needs to be addressed and set time-frames
• Respectfully encourage parents to feel free to share knowledge and ideas, when confronted with ‘specialists.’ “ The messages clearly indicate that parents and whanau want to be consulted, involved and empowered in their child’s education “ (Bevan-Brown, 2006, p.16).
• Attend courses relevant to the child
• Provide a coordinated service for the learner as different professionals have different perspectives
• Build strong relationships and take your time
• Work holistically with the child
• Be a good communicator with a willing attitude
• Ensure goals are clear and simple
• Provide comprehensive support and organise this with others
• Liaise with whanau to support them, and be an advocate, when working with agencies – provide them with information
Bevan-Brown, J. (2006. Teaching Māori children with special needs: Getting rid of the too hard basket. Kairaranga Journal of Educational Practice, Vol. 7(Special ed.), 14-23.
AROHA, PONO - Tips for best practice:

• Be a good listener
• Have leadership and management skills
• Have regular supervision and/or peer supervision
• Build strong interprofessional relationships
• Respect each others skills and values
• Build strong relationships with whanau and keep them ‘in the loop’
• Working together allows for faster decision making
• Everyone has equal speaking rights – no one person dominates the conversation
• Trust, honesty, openness and valuing others. “These values include honesty, integrity cooperation, and respect, and are the basis of successful interprofessional practice” (Mentis et al., 2012, p.5).
• Having qualifications in a specialist or supporting area
• Attend courses that are relevant to the role/position
• Everyone being on the same page
• Having a strong meeting leader to ensure all have a say
Mentis, M., Kearney, A., & Bevan-Brown, J. (in press). Interprofessional learning as a model for inclusive education. In S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.), Teaching in inclusive communities. Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons.
Be just as willing
to learn as teach Where:
Think outside the box regarding where to hold a meeting...
Not always at school or in an office…where will whanau be comfortable?
Consider the family.
Set date for next meeting at end of first meeting.
ALWAYS PARENTS / WHANAU, plus the and any other professionals involved with the student.
Student voice should always be heard even if they are not there.
Parent's and needs should be paramount... family home cafe neutral territory Teacher involvement ensures:
the student remains the teacher's responsibility
teacher has ownership of issues and solutions
information can be shared with relevant staff put at ease
clear purpose of meeting
culture respected whanau teacher Meeting Organisation Know
Build a network of people who can “advise” you
Keep children at the heart of the matter
Respect the roles, the rights, the fundamental understandings that that group of people have - whether considering culture or the deaf culture
To be successful, interprofessional team members must value diversity and have a commitment to developing their cross-cultural competence in order to enhance their practice. Mentis & Bevan-Brown (2012) P6 Cultural Considerations Meetings Applying partnership, participation and protection relating to Te Tiriti especially participation as redress in educational situations to support whanaungatanga between the child, the family, the agency Understanding your view and your culture.
Knowing and welcoming the fact that others hold differing views and cultural experiences to you
Te Hikoinga (refer to Ka Hikitia) and where you are on the poutama yourself Maori Remember to include:
Chit chat time before and after meeting
Whanau at all times
Food and drink…water on table, lollies / grapes? Kai at the end to round off the meeting
Introductions, mihi then karakia if appropriate.
A read through of the agenda, allocate time keeper, note taker, facilitator / lead agency Pre-meeting:
Prioritise relationships – get to know the whānau first
Build rapport to build engagement
Consider the needs of the child/family
a tip sheet sent out with the agenda (not to whanau) outlining expectations of members of an Interprofessional team Remember all team members should:
Be constructive
Use positive conversation / korero always adding mana to tapu.
Discuss needs in a non – confrontational manner
Problem solve – don’t personalize issues
Remain professional - make suggestions in a professional manner “have you thought about this…” “have you tried this…” “I have seen this in action do you think it would be suitable for this student?”
Know your boundaries
Know your skill level and what you are able to offer
Be honest and engage in open interaction
Be confidential
They purport that the success of inclusion depends on effective collaboration among professionals, and to this end they recommend use of a collaborative problem-solving model. Dettmer (2005) p.41 Tips for facilitator:
Brainstorm / record on whiteboard so everyone can see how the thoughts are going
Ensure no particular voice dominates – opportunities for everyone to have their say
Open discussion, bringing it back on track “interesting you see it that way, I had always considered...”
Keep an open mind.
Constantly referring it back to the parent…"would that work for you?" "Would that fit in with your lifestyle?"
Avoid discussions about resourcing / funding in front of parents
Clear documented outcomes of the meeting, who is going to do what and by when sent to meeting members swiftly within a couple of days.
"...we believe that leading and managing multidisciplinary teams requires increased skills and sensitivity. Evidence from successful teams in healthcare provides us with the model of the 'player manager' who is able to develop and lead teams drawn from different professional groups." Wilson & Pirrie (2000) p.4 Agency constraints
•Certain professional’s own constraints about what they are able to do particularly people within the health field that perhaps don’t have the same flexibility to shuffle things around and make time available.
•At times frustrating especially when agencies have boundaries they have to work within.
Learning to work together in professional role and to consider each other’s individual ways of working (Early Interventionist and Speech Language for example)
Lack of follow through from IDP (resources and information)
Early Interventionist and Speech Language Therapists do not really know the child, his limits and capabilities.
Early Intervention Teachers and Speech Language Therapists placing their own limitations on child, due to his/her condition/diagnosis Time Constraints
•Time restrictions – for meetings, organising others.
•Time is an issue. Getting people together from different agencies and also within the school is sometimes hard to manage.
•Time to meet. Particularly with teachers and support staff who have busy
teaching programmes. Also being able to have access to some professionals with large geographical areas to cover.
•Lack of notice that the meeting is coming, presumption that you are able to make it on the date it is being held.
•No agenda or get it the day before and to your surprise you are actually going to be doing some presentation about something!
•Availability / time tabling the best time for everyone to attend. Logistics of a Team Work
• Time is an issue. Getting people together from different agencies and also within the school is sometimes hard to manage.
•Time to meet. Particularly with teachers and support staff who have busy teaching programmes. Also being able to have access to some professionals with large geographical areas to cover.
•Physically getting everyone involved with the student together.
•Getting a large group of people together at one time. We usually
make the next meeting date before we leave the meeting while everyone has got their diaries.
•Location of professionals and clients.
•Lots of people with lots of ideas – coordinating these.
•Coordinating meetings that involve all the professionals (due to time, other appointments, people not showing up, a range of different agendas). Imbalance of Power & Prejudice
•I like to think that everyone’s voices are as good as everyone else’s but some people do have a sense that their views are superior to their peoples. I often acknowledge that parents
are the ones that know their kids best and they basically have as much if not more to contribute to these meetings than anyone with qualifications and fancy titles.
•Members of the group perceiving a hierarchy of members.
•A patronising attitude towards others.
•Encouraging people to feel knowledgeable particularly parents and teachers. Often they don’t realise that they are as knowledgeable as they are. Feeling that their knowledge may not be valued.
•Making assumptions about others who are different to you.
•Working from a deficit mind set about others who are different to you. Lack of Professional Skills and Knowledge
•Not having the skill base to support the whanau and child
•Not enough qualified ‘experts’
•A lack of professional competence is a barrier to interprofessional practice.
•Roles being allocated to people who don’t have the skills required to carry it out e.g. asking teachers to be note takers at collaborative action plan meetings when they haven't been trained or have experience of doing this “job”.
•We have to careful about terminology / jargon.
•No formal PD opportunities for IPP training / development Barriers to Tika, Aroha, Pono Barriers to Aroha & Pono Barriers to Tika Tika Aroha Pono Child / Tamaiti / Tamariki focusing on

The Education of the Team members
•Professionals think they are a stand-alone service
•Not sharing
•Dislike working in a team so do it alone at the expense of the other support services
•Peoples different attitudes and perspectives
•Knowing when to back off and let others do their job
•Not a team player – impacts on the child if they don’t know what they are doing
•Dishonesty, and lack of trust, lack of respect.
•Attitudinal barriers…people perhaps not quite understanding other people’s roles and having expectations that certain things will be delivered or provided that aren’t possible.
•Sometimes the bigger picture is not seen with specialists remaining focused in isolation within their areas.
•Teams who only want it their way, who aren’t willing to incorporate new ideas and new thinking.
•I have been to interprofessional meetings where people have promised what they can’t deliver to look good in front of other people and that is going down a very dangerous path.
•At times frustrating especially when agencies have boundaries they have to work within.
•Breaking confidentiality.
•Lack of trust
•Different views
•Other professionals lack of motivation, passion, energy or interest in cases.
•Lack of engagement from professionals within the team.
•Defining the parameters for who is responsible for what and now.
•No one is introduced to each other, confusing for the family and new professionals.
•Professionals who work part time, this makes contacting them difficult, also restricts meeting times and days. Lack of Clear Agenda & Focus
•Trying to establish a focus.
•Going off on a tangent.
•Putting own agenda ahead of whanau wants.
•Mixed agendas regarding the purpose of the meeting. Some meetings are driven it seems by an alternative agenda and you have all been brought together so that boxes can be ticked.
•Lack of quality facilitation where all voices were heard.
•People with hidden agendas or when you get a feeling those decisions have already been made and you are just being involved so that they can tick the box that shows they have consulted with stakeholders.
•One dominant professional takes over the meeting, missing vital opinions from the family and other professionals. Agenda is not used correctly. Ko te Tamaiti te Pütake o te Kaupapa!
The Child - the Heart of the Matter Teaming for Success How and who Cultural Perspectives Collaboration! Approaches Expertise and knowledge Support the Teacher Aroha & Pono
whanau & practitioner knowledge & skills Pono Aroha & Pono Let's introduce ourselves! Who are we? Ko te Tamaiti te Pütake o te Kaupapa!
The Child - the Heart of the Matter Kia ora I am a Resource Teacher of the Deaf
I have been in this role for 5 years - part time
I love my job and the children I work with
The vision of van Asch is to develop communication and language and provide equitable access to learning. P.R.I.D.E Tika, Pono & Aroha
research Support for the child Best Practice Aroha & Pono Pono Aroha Teamwork http://specialistteaching.net.nz/mod/wiki/view.php?id=3632&page=reading+link+Gaynor http://specialistteaching.net.nz/file.php/17/IPP_chapter-1.pdf Speech Language Therapists Advisor of Deaf Children Special EducationCoordinator Resource Teacher of Vision Resource Teacher of Deaf van Asch Kelston BLENNZ Special Education Coordinator Special Education Advisor Early Intervention Interprofessional learning Professional collaborboration 'Quotes' Interprofessional Relationships Evidence Based Practice is about ... ... and the same elements translate into
Interprofessional Practice ... ... unless roadblocks create barriers ... and some of the these barriers were identified through interviewing professionals ... Kia Ora! Warm Pasifika Greetings! Hello !
Three of our presenters are from the Resource Teacher : Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Service and we welcome this opportunity to take a closer look at Interprofessional Practice. RTLB are to work in collaboration with schools, parents, families, whanau, Maori organisations, Special Education Service and other agencies to support students in Years 1 - 10. ( RTLB Service Toolkit 2012, p.32)
The Official logo of the New Zealand Resource Teachers: Learning and Behaviour Association Inc., is the motif which is based on the famous Maori proverb:

“He taonga rongonui, te aroha ki te tangata”
“Goodwill towards others is a precious gift”

We believe that goodwill is the essence of effective interprofessional practice.

Source: http://www.nzrtlb.org.nz Downloaded 30/6/2012 During IEPs to seek advice from other professionals when informing the teacher of concerns/progress with parents -
informing/guiding/seeking advice Bicultural Foundations of Interprofessional Practice
The relevance of this article to interprofessional practice is that it addresses the core concepts and values of tapu, mana, tika, pono, aroha, whanaungatanga. These are all influential but intangible qualities that a bicultural practitioner, who acknowledges these within their taha Maori, will carry with them, into our interprofessional hui / meetings.

http://www.nzgeographic.co.nz/archives/issue-5/the-unseen-world Consultation, Collaboration and Teamwork for Students with Special Needs
This book is a comprehensive, twelve chapter collection of reading material, graphics, vignettes, focusing questions, key terms, application examples and information, chapter reviews, items 'to do' and 'to think about' and further reading all about collaboration, consultation and teamwork.

Dettmer,P., Thurston, L.P., & Dyck,N.J. (2005). Consultation, collaboration and teamwork for students with special needs(5th Ed.) USA: Pearson

This reading is about :
The Foundations and Frameworks for Collaborative School Consultation

http://www.ablongman.com/html/productinfo/dettmer5e/0205435238_ch2.pdf http://moderntimesworkplace.com/good_reading/GRWhole/Multi-Disciplinary.Teamwork.pdf This reading looks at what needs to happen for Interprofessional Practice to be successful, that it is more than just working in the same office…“The new emphasis is on working together to deliver a coordinated, some would argue integrated, service to end-users, be they pupils in schools, members of the community, or patients in the Scottish Health Service.” Page 1

The reading goes on to make suggestions about barriers and enablers as it is clear from the literature that ‘putting people together in groups representing many disciplines does not necessarily guarantee the development of a shared understanding’ (Clark, 1993). Cited on Page 2 Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC)- Case managers (and appointed specialists) Parents Speech and Language therapists - SLT Resource Teachers of Vision - RTV Resource Teacher of Deaf - RTD
Special Education Coordinator - SENCO Audiologist
Early Interventionist - EI Special Education Advisor - SEA Advisor of Deaf - AoDC Principal * Teachers * Teacher Aides
Sensory Schools
Community based elders, family support persons, interpretersMarae based service provider personnel Ministry of Education (MOE) - Kaitakawaenga / Cultural Advisor and Team Leaders eg 8+ Team
Resource Teacher - Learning and Behaviour (RTLB) Ministry of Justice (MOJ) Children, Youth and Family (CYF) Public Health Nurses (PHN) District Health Board(DHB)representatives - mental health service, Who “Interprofessional Practice can be a vehicle for promoting positive interprofessional practice” Sundari Joseph, Lesley Diack, Fiona Garton and Jenni Gordon – Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK “Individually, we are one drop. Together, we are an ocean.” Ryunosuke Satoro “The greatest barrier to success is the fear of failure.” Sven Goran Eriksson “Whenever you're in conflict with someone, there is one factor that can make the difference between damaging your relationship and deepening it. That factor is attitude.” William James "It is amazing how much people can get done if they do not worry about who gets the credit." --Sandra Swinney "The greater the loyalty of a group toward the group, the greater is the motivation among the members to achieve the goals of the group, and the greater the probability that the group will achieve its goals." --Rensis Likert Who did we interview? Speech Language Therapist (SLT) - 1 1/2yrs experience. Quals: Bachelor Speech and Language Therapy

Special Education Advisor (SEA) - 13 years experience as an SEA and 14 years in special ed. Quals: BEd., ESOL

Early Interventionist - 20 years in the role. Quals: BEC., PGDipEI Special Education Advisor (SEA) 0.8 for the past 5 years and Ors Fund Manager for the district 0.2 for the past 4 years. She was also co-ordinator of the enhanced programme fund and acting Service Manager for 18 months. Prior to this 16 years running a unit for students with significant disabilities.

RTLB Cluster Manager (past 7 months). Worked in this geographical area for the past 12 years. Prior to being Cluster Manager was an RTLB, completed a year at the Ministry on the RTLB Project 2006. Prior to RTLB was an Early Intervention Teacher. Also National Co-ordinator of RTLB Executive for 4 years.

Speech and Language Therapist for the Ministry of Education for over 40 years. MOE SE Kaitakawaenga - 20 years experience

Principal of a multicultural primary school - 8 years experience

SENCO of a primary school - 12 years experience Speech Language Therapist (SLT) with fifteen years experience who works within two Intervention Teams, with the MOE and CDT

-Parents of a child with Autism, who have been involved with Group Special Education and the Early Intervention Team for over four years since their sons diagnosis

-CCS co-ordinator, who advocates for families in educational, medical and respite situations.

-Educational Support Worker (ESW) who works within an Early Childhood Centre with two children with high needs This reading articulates the need for interprofessional learning and as such defines it thus: Interprofessional education is determined when professionals from different areas learn with, from and about each other.
IPL – enhances collaboration. Learning together ensures professionals are better equipped to practice together. Insights and understanding come from learning together and practicing together – through planning, discussing and sharing. http://specialistteaching.net.nz/file.php/17/IPP_chapter-1.pdf http://web.ebscohost.com.tg3ss4j4b.useaccesscontrol.com/ehost/detail?sid=b4d9d10f-10ed-4d4f-9d2a-76fd557c1773%40sessionmgr112&vid=8&hid=24&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvcQtbG12ZQ%3d%3d#db=ehh&AN=13317797 This reading discusses how best to establish if collaboration is successful in a school setting by developing an assessment model for assessing professional collaboration - this is a practical way to address the world where collaboration takes place. Collaboration gives educators opportunities to establish “rewarding and long lasting social and professional relationships” (p.1). More schools are now recognising that collaboration fosters a shared responsibility for educating ’heterogeneous’ groups of students. The range of demands and responsibilities in schools is addressed more appropriately by a collaborative team approach, rather than through individual, isolated efforts. and 'aha' moments I have been exposed and open to interprofessional practice from the perspective of devoted parents and talented ESW who feel undervalued, and that their contribution to conversation formal and informal and IDP’s is over looked and not respected. I have learnt that officially untrained people involved in these teams play a vital role and need to be given more respect and support. I noted that there are many similarities between all the professionals that I interviewed, especially in terms of the learning with, from and about. All those interviewed stated that they learn so much from other professionals during formal and informal occassions. Often this learning took place at workshops where the interviewee was presenting, attending or both. This interaction with others then helped to form relationships that were the foundation for ongoing consultation and collaboration. Relationship building is a key to success for the child and their whanau. Bicultural Practice Model – adding mana to the tapu / enhancing blessings and protecting potential

The most memorable learning about interprofessional practice is that the child and their education are central to our practice - individual and interprofessional. I knew that before I interviewed but I know with a way different understanding now. One of the 'aha moments' for me was the significance of why and how we start our hui / meeting (about the child’s education) with karakia / prayer, and the focus is Te Atua / God - and then we move this focus onto the child and their education, and then we close with a karakia / prayer. Throughout that hui / meeting we are all needing to keep working at the balance of whanaungatanga / relationships. RTLB reflection The difference between problem solving and interprofessional practice

When we sit around the interprofessional table we operate two ways:

- bringing our craft ( our practice model for this situation) and negotiating our role from this value base


- we can take on problem solving as the craft the team is using and create a solution for the situation.

I have never really stopped to think about this aspect before. One reason is that I know who I am and that every time I operate in a group situation I bring and share my values, my professional knowledge and skills. This is implied and not explicit.

Would it be correct to say that to be truly consultative and collaborative requires explicit team contributions, so we can each place ourselves accordingly? So to 'inter change' from being a problem solver to being a consultative, collaborative team member I have to be conscious of the literature / tika aspect of my contribution, and find a way to share this. Also this requires each one of us to be willing to learn about each other in these interprofessional settings and look for those commonalities that can overcome barriers to effective interprofessional practice. IPP - values, processes outcomes
Appreciation of cultural diversity
•Recognising the knowledge, skills and expertise of others
•Maintenance of ethical standards
•Practice is inclusive
•Practice is culturally sound
•Whanau and child feel valued and safe
•Team members work together in a productive manner
•Professional roles are understood and appreciated
•Professional knowledge is shared for the benefit of the child and whanau
•Sharing professional knowledge with others
•Contributing to the goals for the child
•Collaborating with others - ensuring little confusion or duplication of processes
•Mutual respect
•Common goals are set and met
•Intervention is child centred and solution focused
•Future relationships are set
•Whanau and professionals are upskilled
•No one is working in isolation
•Ethical practice for all
•Dealing with ethical dilemmas professionally and according to the workplace kaupapa
•Understanding other professional approaches to ethical issues
•Team members are safe
•Whanau and child privacy is respected
•Issues are resolved satisfactorily One of our team is a Ministry of Education Early Intervention Service member. This service provides support for children from new born to five years of age who have a developmental or learning delay, a disability, or a significant behaviour difficulty. Helping New Teams Perform Effectively – Quickly

This article is based on the ‘forming, storming, norming, performing’ phrase coined by psychologist Bruce Tuckman in 1965 to summarise his group development model. In 1977 Tuckman, along with colleague M. Jensen, added ‘adjourning’ to this model - often included as ‘mourning’ for the sake of rhyming. This model can be used to guide leadership, give clarity to how a group functions, provide a resource for avoiding ‘pit falls’ and as a focus for resolving group ‘fall outs’.

Source: www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm
Downloaded 20/5/2012

Further reading :
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuckman’s_stages_of_group_development “Primary challenges to interprofessional practice include power and politics, funding, territoriality, educational biases, humanistic concerns, and legal issues.”
Geva,E., Barsky, A., Westernoff, F. (2000) p10 downloaded 5/07/2012 A prezi presentation on the factors that influence collaboration amongst professionals - what works and how to increase success.
Gable, R. A., Mostert, M. P., & Tonelson, S. W. (2004). Assessing professional collaboration in schools: Knowing what works. Preventing School Failure, 48(3), 4-8. Defining Interprofessional Practice - enablers, challenges and recommendations

Some of the information contained in Chapter 1 of this book is directly linked to the research interviews that form the basis for this presentation. The development of a framework for interprofessional practice and the 'bringing together' of different professions to meet the needs of diverse populations create a myriad of positive, challenging and interesting collaborative situations. This aspect of IPP was evident in the responses of our interviewees.

Geva,E.,Barsky,A.E., & Westernhoff,F. (2000) "Interprofessional practice with diverse populations: Cases in point. "Westport,CT:Greenwood Publishing Group RTLB reflection Professional Development in Education, From interprofessional education to interprofessional practice: Exploring the implementation gap. Author Jackie Ravet, 2001

This book looks at the areas within interprofessional practice that need improving and that can be supported to make the interprofessional team practice successful. Professionals lack of knowledge around specialist areas such as autism. Other issues and gaps covered in this book are lack of work flexibility, confusion over joint responsibility, and who and how to facilitate inclusion. Professionals lack of shared understanding, values, and vision for the child. Solutions to bridge the gaps are medication of professionals attitudes, behavioural changes and to consider the collective acquisition of knowledge. Areas that are working well are shared assessment, planning, strategies and evaluations. The study recognised that interprofessional practice recognises the improvement in coupled training and enhances professional development. This study was based on an educational team in Aberdeen Scotland

Journal of Interprofessional Care, Vol17, NO 1, 2003 This article explains the continental interprofessional practice between countries including USA, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The co-operation between educational providers regarding their openness, theoretical perspectives and immersion in different communities and how this influences their practice. This article explains that in their findings women were more effective at interprofessional practice than men. The process of interprofessional practice supports qualification sharing, experiences and co-teaching models. Interprofessional practice creates a more informed practice for families and the community.

Interprofessional Education in Practice

Sundari Joseph, Lesley Diack, Fiona Garton and Jenni Gordon – Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK "... the term interprofessional suggests a highly integrated approach to assessment and intervention, one in which practitioners from different professional backgrounds come together to work with clients/students/patients. The professionals develop common objectives for work, while still providing differential professional contributions (Falk, 1977). Through assessment and intervention, they maintain an open system of communication, coordination, and cooperation(Kane, 1983; Harbaugh, 1994)." Geva et al (2000) page 3 " ... interprofessional practice focuses on how practitioners from different professional backgrounds work together..." Geva et al (2000) page 12 This presentation has been created as part of post graduate study to provide material for the audience to reflect on - a starting point for learning about IPP. It covers all aspects of the themes - tika, pono,aroha - that are present throughout our group's work. retrieved from http://metronews.ca/health/215107/heart-of-the-matter-new-guidelines-for-your-childs-health/ www.youtube.com/watch?v=KWESzp_g4Fs www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ay-Bq67rglM Source: Massey University Specialist Teaching website 'Past Courses / Alumni Sites - Core Theory 2011" uploaded 6/07/2012' www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ay-Bq67rglM Our team conducted interprofessional interviews and the following barriers to interprofessional practice were all identified by practitioners within their own fields of practice (refer to 'Who we interviewed') www.youtube.com/watch?v=uN1cTmvQHcQ http://www.minedu.govt.nz/~/media/MinEdu/Files/TheMinistry/KaHikitia/English/KaHikitia2009Summary.pdf Mentis, M., Kearney, A., & Bevan-Brown, J. (in press). Interprofessional learning as a model for inclusive education. In S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.), Teaching in inclusive communities. Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons Wilson, V., & Pirrie, A. (2000). Multidisciplinary teamworking indicators of good practice. Retrieved online http://www.quotespicture.org/teamwork-quotes-4.html http://thinkexist.com/quotation/individually-we-are-one-drop-together-we-are-an/391196.html http://www.bashzone.com/13235/teamwork-quotes from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/whenever_you-re_in_conflict_with_someone-there_is/227935.html http://en.thinkexist.com/search/searchquotation.asp?search=the+greatest+barrier+to+success http://www.quotespicture.org/teamwork-quotes-2.html http://www.bellaonline.com/ArticlesP/art24114.asp http://thinkexist.com/quotes/rensis_likert/ Enablers that enhance our interprofessional practice
were indentified by the professionals we interviewed and included ... Our interprofessional interviews revealed these recommendations for improving interprofessional practice ...
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