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Copy of Understanding Student Motivation

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Dan Saken

on 30 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Understanding Student Motivation

Understanding Motivation: An Educational Perspective
Human Motivation in a Nutshell
Enhancing Autonomy in the Classroom
Enhancing Competence in the Classroom
Tips for the Unmotivated
Biological Drives
-Humans are wired to become extremely sensitive to rewards and punishments

-Money, grades, awards, certifications, titles; avoidance of embarrassment/shame

-Very powerful, but are unique to individuals and change over time

-Heavily relied upon in educational settings
-Behaviors that are driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself

-Stem from 3 psychological needs:

-Autonomy: Desire to do something emanates from the self, is un-coerced

-Competence: One's belief in their ability to perform tasks well

-Relatedness: Desire to interact and form relationships with other people
-Need to survive
-Hunger, thirst, pain reduction, reproduction

-Strongest motivator

-Motivation ceases after need is

Intrinsic Motivation
Taking Their Perspective
-Communicate an understanding of their feelings and perspectives

-Explore their beliefs as they relate a topic

-Feeling like they've been heard and/or understood increases feelings of autonomy
Provide Greater Freedom
-Allow students greater choice in how they complete a task
-Sequence and order
-How much time they spend on each section
-How they present the information
-Allow students to evaluate their own work
-Have students review/chart their own progress over time
-Allow students to negotiate "work contracts"

Use Rewards Carefully
Create Autonomy Supportive Class Environments
-Acknowledging Student Perspectives
-Providing Greater Flexibility and Choice
-Use of Random, Performance-Based Rewards
-Help Students Understand Relevance of Work to Other Aspects of Their Lives
-Avoid "Controlling" Language:
-Instead of referring to what they "should" have done or "must" do, recognize positive aspects of their performance
-De-Emphasize Evaluations
-Open-Ended Socratic Seminars were Found to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

-Commonly referred to as "Self-Determination"

-Desire for action comes from within, not external

-The more a person believes that they are in control and doing things because they want to, the greater their investment

-Individuals have increased cognitive abilities when feeling autonomous
-Rewards should be used sparingly and carefully

-Use of rewards can diminish intrinsic motivation to perform a task

-Rewards should be performance contingent (based on quality of performance)

-If rewards are used to relay information about their performance, or competence, they will increase student motivation

-Non-tangible rewards (praise, recognition, positive feedback on effort) are best
-Positive Feedback Increases Feelings of Competence

-Feedback Should be Specific and Focus on Effort as Opposed to Result

-When Grading, Emphasize Comments and Feedback as Opposed to Just the Grade
Focus on Mastery Learning
-Mastery Learning Focuses on Learning Process and How One Learns:
-Define success in terms of improvement and progress
-Emphasize effort, learning and working hard on challenging tasks
-Focus on how students are learning rather than performing
-Treat errors and mistakes as natural

-Setting Goals for Mastery are Associated with High Perceived Ability, Competence, Improved-Task Analysis and Planning, Higher Cognitive Processing, Self-Regulation, Improved Persistence

-Criterion-Referenced Comparisons are Better than Normative-Referenced Comparisons

-De-Emphasize Competition

-Involves one's knowledge, beliefs and abilities to efficiently solve problems and meet challenges

-One's beliefs are in some cases more important than abilities

-Task-selection is important for competence
Enhancing Relatedness in the Classroom
Establishing Personal Connections w/Students
-Recognizing Student by Name

-Inquiring About Their Interests/Hobbies

-Communicating an Understanding of Their Perspective

-Cooperation with Parents and Other Teachers/Staff Increases Feelings of Relatedness

Establishing Positive Class Climate
Working in Groups
-When Working in Groups, Students are Provided Opportunities to Learn from Other Students, Take on Social Responsibility, and Collaborate with Others, Improving Feelings of Relatedness

-Research Recommends Mixed-Ability Groupings of Students

-Tasks Should be Structured to that Each Student's Reward is Contingent on the Successes of All Other Group Members

Human Desire to Interact with One Another and Develop Secure and Satisfying Connections with Others

Especially Important with Adolescents

Having a Positive Connection with an Adult is the Strongest Protective Factor for Students; Strongly Correlated with Academic Achievement
-Use of Autonomy Supportive Strategies (More Flexibility/Choice in Classroom, Valuing Student Perspectives, Focus on Mastery Learning)

-Frequent Use of Cooperative/Group Activities

-Positive Feedback that is Specific and Tied to Effort

-De-Emphasis on Evaluation and Competition

-Utilize All Available Resources
-Make Connection with Student
-Collaborate with Parents/Relevant Staff
-Connect Relevance of Task to Other Aspects of Their Life
-Increase Number and Frequency of Positive Feedback Statements
-Generate "Behavioral Momentum"
-Have students start on easy tasks first
-Select tasks that they'll have a higher likelihood of completing
-Reduce amount of work at first, slowly increase it as they complete more
-Intersperse easy problems with hard
-3:1 ratio at first, then 6:1, 10:1, etc
Full transcript