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on 14 November 2013

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Transcript of BAHAY KUBO

Bedroom-sala (located at the lower part)
Bedroom (upper part)
Kitchen (lower part)
Dining room (lower part)
Open porch or batalan

The house is raised above the ground (but build low and close to the ground 1-3 meters) to protect the dwellers from the typhoons and strong winds.

In most places, the kubo is of the split-level type, with the bedroom built on an upper level while the other divisions are situated on the ground.
If the whole hut is elevated from the ground, one goes up a porch or balcony which is just a small extension of the sala. A bamboo sliding door usually separates the porch from the living room. Though the porch may be a roofless veranda, this is usually where the homeowner finds comfort and relaxation and the perfect place to take an afternoon nap.

' came from the word '
', vernacular word for house.
', translation of the Spanish word '
‘ which means
The Tagalog
refers to mountain houses.

The nipa hut was familiarized in Filipino folk songs as the bahay kubo.
Bahay kubo is actually made up of:
tree trunks

Roofing and walls are made up of nipa, cogon grass, buri palm, coconut leaves, rice stalks, talahib, sugar cane leaves, split bamboo, or black moss.

In the past or in people’s mind, the bahay kubo is composed of a single room but multipurpose dwelling unit, with its walls tending to be as tall as they are long, thus giving the room a boxy appearance- a cube shaped house.

Combination of 2 or more cubes integrated as extensions. Space extension of the bahay kubo means extending the roof/ if the new room is built adjacent to the existing one, this new room will have to be under its own hip roof or

= framework; hip roof
= lean-to
= gable roof

- barrier to prevent children from falling from the stairs
- built-in bed
- bench
Bamboo grilles or the sala-sala or bamboo latticework
- rough matting woven from thin strips of culms
- slatted bamboo

Whole bamboo culms (bayog)- posts, columns, floor joists, and parts of roof framework.
Light bamboo (buho)- rest of the structure
Thin strips culm- sidings and partitions
Light bamboo poles- purlins, or clumps for the cogon roofing

The technique for building the bahay kubo are basically the same though they vary from places depending on the erection of four posts
2 ways to set up the posts:
The papatong (placed on)
Pabaon (to bury)

The circumference of each post is about 5-6 inches

Most nipa houses don’t have trusses or any ceiling, which results to an airy coolness as the breeze is free to circulate around the house.
Has distinct vertical pointed roof created by the 4 corner rafters obliquely towards the ridge pole.
3 meters high and slopes to an almost steep 45°
The pitch for nipa and cogon roofing is high to let the rain water drain quickly.

Master beam (yawi)
runs from one post to the next and is lashed to each post with rattan.
Floor sills (gililan)
run around the outermost periphery of the floor joists to support the walls

One unique feature of the bahay kubo is that with such a neat arrangement of the bamboo slats, the elevated is used not only as a permanent bed, but also as a wide horizontal window.

The construction of walls and sidings is subject to infinite variations: strength required, protection desired from rain or winds, and the need for light and ventilation.
Walls may also be made of flattened bamboo arranged verticall or woven coconut leaves known as sulirap.

In a split-level house,
The sala is merely a space for entertaining neighbors and visitors, and the sala simply extends to the kitchen and the
where kitchen utensils are stored. The sala may have a small wooden table plus a few wooden chairs.
The dining room and kitchen are combined in the nipa hut. There may also be a wooden table coupled with benches or
. They used this table for preparing food but at mealtime, the table is transformed into a dining table.

The bedroom is elevated to protect the family from the heat of the ground below.
Stairs – made of bamboo that leads to bedroom
There is usually no furniture in the sleeping room except for a cabinet (aparador) where they keep their clothes.
During rainy days, the room functions as a playground for the children where they play sungka or hide-and-seek.
It is also a safe place for storing sacks of rice, away from fowl and rats. Sometimes, wet clothes are also hung there.

In some huts, the main sleeping room has an additional private room to be used as dressing room and closet or as a guest room. In one hut, however, there is just a small dressing aea and it is covered with sako curtains.

In a fully elevated house,
The bedroom and sala are combined into one multipurpose room.
The balcony may be built at a level lower than the main room by one dangkal or the equivalent of a footstep.
Aside from the cooking area (abuhan) with its stove simply made of large stones, the kitchen has an extension (batalan) which is open and without any roof.
Batalan- a landing where they wash their dishes and pots as well as their hands and feet.
- made up of lengths of whole bamboo cut from the base of old bamboo stems called taga sa panahon and nearly solid.
– constructed out of heavy bamboo and tree trunks. Two small bamboo poles are fastened in between pole uprights to from the thread. Spacing of the thread is not equally divided according to exact measurement but by mere eye calculations known as the
There is a belief that the number of steps of the stairs may bring good or bad luck. The first step from the foot of the stairs is called
oro (gold),
the second is
plata (silver)
, the third is
mata (death)
, the fourth is oro again and so on.
Inclination of the stairs depends on the convenience of the owner.

The bamboo materials used for windows are usually leftovers from poles used for the roof.
The window framework is panelled with either nipa shingles or
matting which is made of flattened bamboo slats that are crisscrossed.
– space under the house which may be fenced with bamboo slats or it may be open
- this is where they store their harvest, keep their tools and implements or their pigs, goats and chicken.

Entry door – made up of bamboo frames with vertical and horizontal studs and
nipa shingles
tied to bamboo strips fastened to studs.
Diagonal stud
– is added to give them support and to provide anchor to the door lock.
Doors are side-hinged and fastenings vary from the traditional latch-string to the lock-and-chain.
4 inch nails
– substitutes for hinges

Windows. The nipa houses has very few windows because the space between the walls and the eaves already constitue one continuous window.
Sliding windows – are built in the living and dining rooms for the purpose of having a good view of the front yard and visual contact with approaching persons
Tilt-up window
– made for the bedroom for reasons of privacy as the bedroom is also uses as a dressing area

Barrio San Cristobal in hagonoy, Bulacan, straddles on a river that empties into Manila bay. The Bahay kubo is built on the mound of an embankment left by the space between river and salt bed, Standing on stilts whose main corner posts are of wood, the house is split leve;, with a bamboo-nipa-covered SILONG where the kitchen and dining areas are located on bare ground. A bamboo ladder leads to the elevated house proper, an open-spaced, almost bare living area is transformed a bedroom at night. To the left is a small SILID.
-A remarkable hip roof reaching a height of three meters with the rafters and joists sloping to an almost steep 45 degrees.
-Roof is thatched with nipa shingles tied in sections to the roof joists that are attached to untrussed rafters resting on bamboo wooden beams
- The beams which sustain the load house are tied held by bamboo pegs
-Flooring is made of bamboo strips nailed across floor joists. Directly below the silong which is enclosed by wood slats.
-The walls are a combination of plywood and
matting, with windows all oriented to the river and facing small front yard stuck along the bank
-The Windows are made of nipa bound by strips of wood. Because they are sliding windows they are attached to bamboo poles by wire hangers.

A family of five, bought the hut which was built in 1977. They added the enclosed extension
4 years later.
The roof ground silong has a large dining area that is screened by bamboo slats from kitchen and
The Dining room - has a bamboo dining table with long sitting bench and a a thatched door as backdoor opening.
Kitchen area - one finds the
where food is cooked on stoves, a storage pots and pans and firewood and banggerahan where their water jar cooking utensils and cups and plates

One reachjed the hut coming from
where the owner's banca lies in anchor,
The sala-bedroom's scant furniture consists of 3 wooden stairs and a small side table and wicker storage bin.

In this bedroom that the couple and two children sleep while their infant son and grandmother sleep on the small silid which looks like an appendage for its ceiling is the roof itself.
SILID - where they keep their personal belongings such as nets, clothes, sleeping mats and ironing board
In the Sala's corner, one finds the household altar featuring SANTO NINO statue
At the entrance on the exterior walla of the silong hangs a cloth reproduction of the LAST SUPPER below this is a calendar girl and other prints
- most important exterior space as it heralds the arrival and departure of guests and neighbors as well as the husband going and coming from day's fishing work.
For the women, the KITCHEN FLOOR is the busies area for here is where the FOOD is prepared and cooked, dishes washed, children fed and callers are first received.
Children prefer to spend their time downstairs
The family's ideal house is one with BIGGER space. They also hope to replace some of the bamboo structural members with wood but only if they can afford to do so.

Wood, rattan, cane, bamboo, anahaw, nipa, bark, or cogon.
Nipa(Nipa fruticans) is the widely used material.

Walls- Nipa leaves / bamboo slats
Floor-Finely split resilient bamboo
Structure- Raised w/ thick bamboo poles ; 1/2m above the ground

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