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Taxonomy Project

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Nicole Castañeda

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Taxonomy Project

Size: 5 um - 1mm
Physical characteristics: internal cell walls (skeleton) made from silica or calcium carbonate
some have flagellum
Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll c
Reproduction: asexual or fission
Distribution: planktonic and benthic, some are freshwater some are marine
Two divisions: Chrysophyta, Dinophyta
Blue-green algae
non flagellated
microscopic: <5um (picoplankton and ultraplankton)
chlorophyll a
phycobilins (phycocyanin blue an phycoerythrin red)
stores starch
habitat: mostly benthic
Colonies: Lyngbya (mermaid hair or fire weed) forms cell after cell within a sheath, it burns with touch, it has strands or hollow tubes
Symbiotic relationship: epiphyte, they attach themselves to larger plants
Blooms: harmful to seagrass bed because they block the sunlight
Reproduction: simple fission and simple fission, colony fracturing
Nitrogen fixation: heterocysts (specialized cells that isolate the nitrogenase)
exception: Trichodesmium (seadust) lives in tropical areas, does not use heterocysts, has diurnal cycle that allow it to fix nitrogen, uses gas vesicles to lift it up and down
Phaeophyta (brown algae)
Pigments: xanthrophylls, carotene, chlorophyl a and c
can handle heavy wave action
found in colder regions
able to handle the whole color spectrum
(red algae)
Pigments: carotene, chlorophyl a and c, phycobilin
smaller algae
able to deal with the whole spectrum
Monera and Protista
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
No cell wall
Asexual and sexual (complex) reproduction
Eukaryotes and Multicellular
Taxonomy Project
Anthrophyta (Flowering Plants)
Submerged Seagrasses and Merged Flowering Plants
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction (hermaphrodites)
Leaves, roots, stem: are used for uptake of nutrients and water
Chlorophyll A and B, and carotene
Emergent Flowering Plants
Roles: trap sediment, has less food source, primary producer
Includes salt marshes and mangroves
Root system sit out of water
They survive in bad soil environment
Submerged Seagrasses
Asexual (vegetative) and sexual reproduction
Thalasia: slime comes together to make a proxi and then the seed floats away for dispersal
Zostera: pollen grain gets trapped in stigma, pollen grain lands right next to parent
Rhizomes (Primary Producers)
Live on muddy bottom
Like harder substrate for a habitat
blades, stipe and holdfast are all photosynthetic
pneumatocytes: gas filled vesicles that keep plant near the surface for more light
Blade is homologous to the leaf in flowering plants
Stipe is homologous to the veins
Holdfast is homologous to the roots
Phylum Sarcomastigophora
Wide spread
Locomotion: flagella, cilia, pseudopodia
Foraminiferans and Radiolarians
Phylum Ciliophora
Locomotion: cilia
power stroke
recovery stroke
Location: Benthic and planktonic
most abundant
Shell can produce or can steal from coccolithophore
Phylum Labryinthomorpha
Colonial (form at surface of seagrass and benthic algae)
Locomotion is unknown: no flagellum, or cilia or pseudopodia - seem to glide on slime
Asexual reproduction
Multicelluar heterotrophs
saprobe: secretes digestive enzyme that "digests" the dead materials and then absorbs the nutrients or breaks it down for other organisms to use
Parasite: absorbs nutrients from host
Fungal Cell wall: chitin and cellulose
Hyphae: tubular filaments that make up the mycelium (multicellular body) and increase surface area to volume ratio
Role as decomposer:
Can decompose ligmis
Higher on chart chart as a decomposer because they are more advance than bacteria
Obligate Marine Fungi: has no choice but to live in marine environment
Faculative Marine Fungi: has a choice between marine and non-marine environment
Mutualistic Symbiotic Relationship
Lichen: fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae
Mycophycobioses: fungus and non-green algae
Mycorrhizas: fungus and plants
Contractive Muscle

Phylum Porifera
marine and global
Lack symmetry
Specialized cells
They have a loose aggregate of cells which organize themselves into a multicellular organism
Pinacocyte (outside cells of sponge for protection), Choanocyte (move water and collect food), Amoebocyte (food collector, transports nutrients, and makes spicules), Porocyte (create pores)
Advantage of specialized cells: can grow a whole separate organism with one cell
Internal Skeleton: Spongin or bony (soft, made from protein), Spicules or glass (tough, made from calcium carbonate or silica
Reproduction: asexual, regeneration, and sexual
Phylum Placozoa
Phylum Cnideria
Radial symmetry
Jellyfish, sea anemones, corals, hydroids
Mesoglea: gelatinous layer that separates the inner and outer layer body walls
Blind digestive tract (one anus/mouth)
tentacles grab food
Nematocyts: batteries of microscopic structures that produce cnidocytes
Cnidocytes: *characterisitcs of this phylum, they are discharged and produce toxins
Life cycles: Medusa and Polyp
Three classes: hydrozoa, scyphozoa, and anthozoa
Phylum Ctenophora
Comb jellies and sea walnut
Planktonic (most)
Widespread (salinity and temperature tolerant {isotonic and isosmotic})
Symmetrical: Radial
Structure: mouth - anal pore
Locomotion: ctenes (rows of cilia that beat in unison)
Feeding colloblasts: stickness that traps food
Incomplete digestive tract
External Fertilization
Phylum Platyhelminthes
Blind digestive tract
Tubularians - free living
Mouth on ventral side
Cilia on ventral side for movement
Eat other invertebrate

Acoelomates and Pseudocoelomates
Acoelomates: lack body cavity
Pseudocoelomates: have a small cavity
Bilateral symmetry
Phylum Gnathostomudlida (Jaw Worms)
Phylum Nemertea
(ribbon worms)
Proboscis: organs that shoot out of body to grab prey
Complete digestive tract (mouth and anus but no coelom)
Open circulatory system
Phylum Gastrotricha
very small
sensory organs
complete digestive tract - pseudocoelomate
Phylum Kinorhyncha (spiny headed worms)
chitin on outside - molt to grow
complete digestive tract - pseudocoelomate
Phylum Entoprocta (inner anus)
goblet worms
mouth and anus in tenticles
complete digestive tract - pseudocoelomate
Phylum Nematoda (round worms)
parasitic and free-living
secondary peseudocoelum
cuticle - secreted by epidermis
pharynx: used to uptake food
Cryptobiosis: suspending life when conditions are unfavorable
sensitive to environmental changes
true internal cavity that separates the digestive tact from body wall
Fluids promotes circulation (o2, waste, nutrients)
Larger gonads (more sperm and eggs)
specialization of digestive tract
Phylum Ectoprocta (outer anus)
brood their young to protect them
Phylum Brachiopoda (lamp shells)
lingula - 0.5 billion years of living
2 shells
benthic - attach with muscular stalk
separate sexes
brood their young
simple nervous system
Phylum Spincula (peanut worms)
all marine
location: intertidal to abyssal
size: 2m - 50 cm
ciliated tentacles around mouth
Phylum Echurida
small proboscis
secretes mucus net
urechis: live in burrow
Phylum Annelida
metameres: segmented body parts
Class Polychaeta
feed off sediments
filter feeders - tentacles
Phylum Mollusca
Diversity: ubiquitous
Everywhere (pelagic/benthic)
hard external shell
remnant shell
No shell
Muscular foot or tentacles
unsegmented body
secretes shell calcareous
Cephalization (concentration of nerves and sensory organs
nervous: paired nerve chords (circular ganglia)
Digestive: removing ammonia from blood and excreting
Circulatory: open with a heart
Respiratory: gas exchange organs (gills or mantle cavity)
Sexual reproduction:
gonochroristic = dioecious (separate sexes)
monoescious: hermaphrodites (simultaneous and sequential)
Phylum Amphineura or Class Polyplacophora
8 plates
Radula: rasping tongue (scrapes off algae)
singular muscular foot
Example: common eastern chiton
Class Gastropoda
snails, slugs, limpets, abalon, nudibranchs, conchs
Shell (single or none)
Siphons: where water enters body
Habitats: Chesapeake bay (native) and introduce
Class Scaphopoda
tusk shells: both ends have openings
tentacles for feeding
infauna (in benthic layer)
Class Bivalva
Mussels, clams, oysters, scallops
2-hinged shells
no radula
gills: dual function (gas exchange and sort foot)
separate sexes
foot sizes
Sequential Hermaphrodite (protandric: male first)
External fertilization
Simultaneous hermaphrodite
Chesapeake bay has tons!!!!!!
scallop have eyes
Class Cephalopoda
Most advance
Squids, octopus, cuttlefish, nautilus
Chitonous beak
Sensory: eyes with iris, cornea, lens, retina
Suckers on tentacles
Nautilus is the only with an outer shell
Propulsion system: siphons
Chromatophore: cells that help change body color
Benthic and Pelagic
8 arms with one or two rows of suction cups
no shell
cirrata (those that have fins)
no need for buoancy
Solitary or in schools
8 arms - two tentacles
2 fins
pen for shell
retains ammonia and fat for buoyancy
nautilus: grows forward, makes a wall behind them, water is replaced by gas
cuttle fish: cuttle bone, and retains pockets of air
Bilateral Symmetry
Crown of ciliated feeding tentacles
True coelom, with u-shaped gut
Three Phyla: Ectoprocta, Phoronida, Brachopoda
Phylum Phoronida (horseshoe worms)

tube dwelling
feed on plankton
circulatory system more advanced
simple nervous system
Chlorophyta (green algae)
Pigments: chlorophyll a and c, carotene
No top or bottom to this algae
Nicole Castaneda, Betsy Comita, and Kiarra Crump
Golden-brown algae
stores: crysolaminarin and oils
often flagellated
planktonic and benthic
Size: 25-1000um (nanoplankton and microplankton)
Skeleton/shape: cellulose porous plates, for strength and nutrient exchange (like areolus)
2 flagellum
Habitat: planktonic, mostly warm waters
Autotrophic (photosynthetic), mixotrophic, heterotrophic
Photosynthetic pigments:
chlorophyll a and c
Reproduction: sexual (meiosis) or asexual (mitosis)
Bioluminescene (Noctiluca and Ceratium and Gonyaulax)
energy efficient (light but no heat)
luciferse: an enzyme that uses oxidation to make bioluminescene lucifern
Harmful algal blooms
ciguaterra poisoning: gambierdiscus toxicus (gastro-intestinal and neurological problems, also cardio-vascular problems
paralytic shellfish poisoning: alexandrium and others (affect nerves and paralyzes respiratory system)
Symbiotic relationship: zooxanthellae live inside coral and help them by photosynthesizing. When the zooxanthellae leave they turn the coral white, the process is called coral bleaching
They store: starch, fats and oils
Coccolith: plate that protects it from UV light and channels the light to the pigments
Location: warm and temperate seas, open oceans
Primary production: can be very significant in warm waters
main producer in Sargasso sea
Internal skeleton: made of silica plate
Flagellum: one or two
Its impact as a primary producer is unknown
Location: colder waters with lower light intensities
Have many chloroplasts
Size: 15um - 1 mm (most around 500um)
Habitat: benthic and planktonic, shallow waters in temperate seas, colder waters and lower light intensities
Cell wall:
Frustule: made from pectin and silica
outer layer: epitheca
inner layer: hypotheca
centric: radial (circular, triangular, modified squares)
pennate: long (enlongated and bilateral forms)
locomotion: wave-like motion on cytoplasmic surface that extends through the raphe/groove (only occurs when it comes in contact with another surface)
Areolus: hexagonal shape
the shape strengthens the cell
it allows for nutrient and waste exchange
its photosynthetic
Reproduction: fission and other*
other: two ways
Frustule effect: it separates from hypotheca first, the top will become the smaller offspring, this continues until the parent/offspring is too small to divide
Auxospore: its the 25% of the original parent that is too small to divide, can sexually reproduce
Size: 5-20um (nanoplankton)
Consists of coccolithophores and silicoflagellates
Blind Digestive tract
Live on sediments
eat bacteria
only one species: Trichoplax adhaerens
cells shaped like a flattened plate
locomotion: cilia
excretes digestive enzymes externally and then absorbs the digested molecules
Can regenerate
glide on hard surfaces (pelagic at some point in their lives)
exhibit limited specialization and organization of cells
asexual reproduction is common
however have produced oocytes/ embryos in laboratories
Animalia with Backbone
Animalia without a backbone
Joint footed
2/3 of all known animals
Exoskeleton made from chintin
Roles: protection from predators and dessication, area for muscle attachment
Ecdysis: molting, must molt to grow (no continuous growing, only in steps)
Nervous and sensory system: compound eye are motion detectors
Circulatory system: have a heart, but blood is pumped through sinus
Class Crustacea
2 pairs of antennae
larval stage is called naupliis
Diverse: feeders (filter, omnivores, and herbivores), body plan, and habitat (zooplankton, neckton/free swimmers, benthic or pelagic), movement (sessile or mobile)
Class Insecta
water striders, sand and kelp fleas, water beetles
not exclusively marine
Class Merostomata
horseshoe crabs
closely related to spiders
very old
Class Pycnogonida
sea spiders
if intertidal: they are small
if deep sea: they are big
they are eaten by anything from a whale to fish
herbivores and omnivores that connect the 1st trophic level to higher levels
primary consumers
Looks like its been stepped on
looks like its been squished against a wall
have tails
Phylum Hemichordata
acorn worms
deposit feeders
up to 50 cm long
pharyngeal gill slits
Nerve cords
Phylum Echinodermata "Spiny skinned"
benthic to intertidal
exclusively marine
radial symmetry as adults (bilateral as larval)
water vascular system: tube feet -> respiration and excretion
diffuse nerve net
complete digestive tract w/o kidneys
Phylum Chaetognatha
arrow worms
predator (eats zooplankton and isopods)
chemical sensitivity
can sense different water types
Class Echinoidea
sea urchins, sand dollars, heart urchins
herbivores or deposit feeders
Class Crinoida
Feather stars and sea lillies
plankton or detritus feeders
Class Holothuroidea
sea cucumbers
decrease in skeletal system
deposit feeders and plankton eaters
Class Asteroida
sea stars
5,6 or 21 arms
Class Ophiuroidea
brittle stars
Class Concentricycloidea
sea daisies
live very deep, greater than 1000m
Phylum Chordata
huge amount of variation
all have: dorsal hollow nerve cord, longitudinal stiffening notochord of cartilage, pharyngeal gill slits, complete digestive tract, and post anal tail
Three classes of fish: osteichthyes, chondrichthyes, and agnatha
Four tetrapod classes: amphibia, aves, reptilia and mammalia
tunicates (sea squirts, salps and larvaceans)
mostly sessile and benthic
salps and larvaceans can be planktonic
lancelet (infauna, buries himself)
from filter feeders
came around 0.5 billion years ago
earliest vertebrate: conodontophores (had conodonts, notochords, myomeres, fin rays and two eyes)
Possible sol/n to osmotic problem: migrate to adapt
from marine to fresh water (or vice versa) for spawning
Brain and spinal cord
specialized sensory organs
respiration (advanced gills), aerobic respiration
post anal tail varies
supportive notochord discs
Musculature: myomeres (form of segmentation)
Closed circulatory system with a heart arteries, and veins
hemoglobin and red blood cells
live and grow in water
move with fins
most have scales
counter-current exchange system
flow of water from mouth, over gills slits, and out the gills (opposite direction of capillary beds)
O2 is extracted from water
SA of gill lamellae increases in pelagic organisms
four limbs
streamlined shaped
exothermic and homeothermic
Class Agnatha
They lack:
paired fins
Vertebrata (have cartilaginous notochord)
Class Chondrichthyes
Elasmobranhs (sharks, rays, skates, guitarfish, sawfish) and chimaeras
cartilage instead of bone
mostly marine
paired fins
biting jaw with teeth
3 body types: streamline, dorsoventrally flattened, and unusual fish-like
size: <20cm -> >15m
sensory organs: photoreception (eyesight and vision), mechanorecption (touch, inner ear, physical contact, pain and heat receptors), chemoreception (smell and taste), electroreception (electrical field, temperature, ampullae of lorenzini)
osmoregulation: sea water - hyperosmotic environment to the fish
fish: gain salt in gills by diffusion, lose water, excrete by gills and very concentrated urine (no water)
shark: has urea (nitrogenous toxic waste), it inactivates the urine, excretes salt through rectum gland in feces and through gills, divalent goes through urine
Internal fertilization
oviparous and oviviparous
trophonemata: small prjections off the uteri (like milk)
their ability to produce slime (defense mechanism)
completely marine
basically blind
no larval stage
like leach
well developed eyes
suction to prey
some are parasitic with horny teeth
anticoagulant in salivary enzymes
has larval stage
anadramous (spawn in fresh water)
internal osmotic pressure is less than sea water
"Bony Fish"
placoid scales
5-7 pairs of gill slits
claspers near anal region
lots of sharp teeth
one cloacal opening
pelagic and benthic habitat
internal fertilization: oviparous and oviviparous
no scales
1 set of gills
claspers near head region
have crushing molars
separate openings for urogential and anal
internal fert. and oviparous (eggs)
eats molluscs and crustaceans
jaw is connected to skull
Tubular and streamline shape
gill slits on the side (lateral)
heterocercal caudal fin
Caudal fin does lift and strength
Pectoral fins does lift as well
counter-shading coloring
Rays and Skates
dorsalventrally flattened
gill slits on ventral side
caudal finis reduced
pectoral fins provide lift and movement
countershading coloring
pelvic fin has 1 lobe
tail has stinging spiner, may contain venom
dorsal and caudal fins are reduced or theres no dorsal fin, just the caudal fin/tail
there are no bucklers
oviparous (mermaid's purse)
the pelvic fin has 2 lobes
the tail has no spine or venom
there are two small dorsal fins and one tiny caudal fin
Has bucklers
Subclass Sarcopterygii
lobd-finned fish
1 extant marine member: coelacanth (live in deep rocky caves)
possible ancestor: terrestrial tetrapod
Subclass Actinopterygii
Ray-finned fishes: fins supported by bony spines
originated from freshwater
upper jaw: 2 bones (maxilla and premaxilla), extendible jaw that increases feeding range
sturgeons and paddle fish
lack scales
cartilage is secondary
heterocercal rostrum tail
lost ray features
Gars and bowfish
skeleton made from bone
osmoregulation (hypo-osmotic)
huge diversity in body plan
swim bladder (O2 and N2)
Evolutionary advantages:
pectoral fins provide lift
no lungs
fins provide fin movement
Embryological development
out pouch of esophagus
forms ducts - pneumatic duct:
physostomous: keeps pneumatic duct
physoclistous loses the pneumatic duct, also loses swim bladder
Function: with depth, there's an increase in gas
Physostomous fish near surface: add by gulping air, remove through pneumatic duct in mouth and gills
physoclistous and physotomous fish far from surface: remove through oval body (rich supply of vessels (exchange gas)
gas gland: control exchange between swim bladder and blood, increase in O2 percentage

Aves (Birds)
heat transfer from: evaporation, radiation, conduction, convection
adaptations: breathe air, feathers, muscles for propulsion, counter current exchange in feet, streamlined
flight: wings, feathers, hollow bones
salt tolerance: salt glands, concentrated NaCl, uric acid (non toxic)
oviparous (amniotic eggs and internal fertilization)
diversity through wings, feet, build
Fejervarya Cancrivora - crab eating frog
permeable skin
tadpole excretes salt through their gills
as an adult store high amount of urea
Marine Mammals
mammary glands
body hair
specialized teeth
separation of openings (reproduction/digestive)
amniotic eggs
salt glands
kidneys switch urea to uric acid
Sea Turtles
8 species
2 families
carnivorous except for the green and black turtle
off shore mating
terrestrial nest
sex determination are temperature dependent
Marine Iguana
lives in Galapagos
has salt glands
has a flattened tales
strong claws for feeding
black coloring to absorb the heat
salt glands and kidneys
American and Salt water crocodiles
American Crocodile
lives in Florida, Caribbean, and northern south America
lighter color
thinner snout
lives in fresh and brackish water, coastal lagoons, and mangroves
Salt Water Crocodile
Indo Australia, and Asia
they live until 70 years old
largest crocodiles
opportunistic feeders
Sea Snakes
two famalies: Laticaudids and Hydropiid
Indo Pacific
Venomous fangs
salt gland and kidneys
flattened tale
ventral scales few or not there
o2 uptake through skin
one right lung that is used as a swim bladder
Lay eggs above tide line
Live Birth always connected to the water
Family Chelonidae
smaller head
tear drop shaped shell
black to absorbs heat
four squares
comes up to sunbathe
serrated beak
large head
powerful jaws
maturing 10-30 years
eat sponges with silica (aka glass eaters)
mature 20-40 years
beak like bird
Kemps and Olive Ridleys
Olives are abundant
Kemps are endarged
both are solitary
smallest of the turtles
eat crabs
Arrabada Nesting
Indo-Pacific Flat Back
close to land
eat sea cucumbers
lay few amount of eggs
Family Dermochelyidae
Leather back turtle
mature 5-21 years
eat gelatinous invertebrates
range is oceanic
heat retention is through the dermis which is thick and oily
bask in sun
counter current exchange in flippers
Spheniscifors (penguins)
southern hemisphere
lost ability to fly
streamlined shape
lay eggs on land
special eyes for underwater (camera eye)
gulls, terns, sandpipers
wings help them swim
albatross, shearwaters, fulmars
long wing span to glide
low body temp to conserve energy
fat and oil storage to go without food for long periods of time
pelicans, cormorants, ganets, frigate birds
plunge divers, for brief pursuits
proficient at swimming underwater (feet)
Order Cetacea
total marine existance
lack pelvic appendages
lack body hair
blow holes
streamlined body shape
tail fluke propulsion
Order Carnivora
Polar Bears
food - ice seals
fast when ice retreats/summer
3-4 years for breeding
delayed implantation
Marine otters
Eared seals
Order Sirenia (manatees and dugong)
no pelvic limbs
dugong: horizontal fluke
manatee: paddle tail
tropical or subtropical
Suborder Odontoceti
toothed whales
smaller than the baleen whales
males larger than females
they eat squid, marine mammals
more social
live in herds
have a blow hole
use echolocation
Suborder Mysticeti
Baleen - keratin plates, 2 blow holes, filter feeder, reverse sexual dimorphism, low freq vocalization
Family Balaenopteridae - blue, humpback, minke: huge mouth, engulfment feeding, reproduce every year, medium baleen
Family Eschrichtiidae - gray whale: short baleen, suck large crustacean, 2 year round trips,
Family Balaenidae - right and bowhead: skimmers, large baleen, right whale-slow and float, migrate in both hemispheres
Arctic Whale
belugas narwhals, killer whale
adapt to ice covered waters with
their white coloring
neck that can flew
heat retention flippers that are tiny
heat retention blubber
dorsal fin replaced with a dorsal ridge which is an ice breaker
known as the canaries of the sea
males have tusks
modified incisor with 10 million nerve endings
sensory organs detects temperature, salinity, and pressure
they live in remote areas (Arctic and Atlantic)
they dive deep for cod, and squid
Killer whales
live in pods
they are opportunistic feeders
Process: gas comes through the gills, hemoglobin the goes to the gas gland, the gas gland then secretes lactic acid (which lowers pH), this causes lower O2 and reduces the carrying capacity of hemoglobin, then the O2 is dropped into the gas gland
Rete mirabile
alternative: fat, because it is not compressible
Determination of sex: xx and xy; both result in both genders
autosomal genes become genes that contribute to sex (they influence hormones)
results: variety in ratio
different reproductive strategy:
simultaneous hermaphrodite
sequential hermaphrodites
age sequential
protogynous (male first and females second)
protandrous (female first and males second)
shelled turtles
ear less seals/true seals,
can't walk
swims more like a fish
19 species: tropical seals, artic pack ice seals, mid-lat seals
(ex: ringed, harp, hooded, crab eater, Weddell, leopard, elephant)
Family Phocidae
Sea cat
they eat crustaceans, fish,
2 pups per season,
live in kelp beds in Peru and Chile
they live in the pacific rim
dorsally flatten tails
high metabolism for heat
consume 35% of body weight in one day
very fine and thick coat
keystone predators
eats benthic invertebrates
Sea Otters
eared and earless/true seals

eared seals/sea lions
closer to terrestrial ancestors
pinnae - outer ear
lose heat from testes
unfused hind limbs
have fur
1 pup per birth
Family Otariidae
unfused hindlimbs
lives in arctic ocean
more blubber than fur
benthic feeder
vibrissae (sensory whiskers)
suction tongue
sexual dimorphism and lekking
Family Odobinidae
Tropical Seals
monk seals
Caribbean: extinct
Mediterranean: doing poorly
Hawaiian: doing very well
Arctic Pack Ice or Fast Ice
monogamous except hooded
1:1 ratio
they vocalize
very little sexual dimorphism
mate in water
not endangered
most abundant in arctic
small in size
eats small fish, krill, plankton, and anthropods
not endangered
lives in the north
pups are killed a lot
not monogamous, polygamous instead
sexual dimorphism
only nurses for 4 days
the hood comes from the nasal area
does not eat crabs at all
most abundant all over
lives in Antarctica
is eaten by leopard seal
has modified teeth
always returns to the same hole
huge dive capabilities
bottom fish eaters (cod and squid)
eats crabeater, krill and birds
Mid-Latitude Seals
polygynous and sexual dimorphism
they fast while they are on land
They breed on land
Elephant Seals

dives for squid
males defending females
seasonal delayed implantation
double migration
Dolphins and Porpoises
elongated beak
cone shaped teeth
dorsal fin has wave shape
streamline body
very talkative
pods are large
overall larger killer
Blunt nose
spode shaped teeth
triangular dorsal fin
boxier body shape
differ structure in blowhole to talk
smaller pods
smaller overall killer
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