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The Interwar Years

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Gabrielle Tomasello

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of The Interwar Years

1919-1938 The Interwar Years World War I
1914-1919 World War II
1939-1945 Unrest,
Independence,
& Revolution in
Asia and Africa Economics
& The Great Depression Japanese Imperialism
Italian Fascism
Nazi Germany By the beginning of the 20th century, India and China had ceased to exist as independent, sovereign nations. The forces of imperialism had led Europeans to dominate India and China, but the growing forces of nationalism would soon transform these two nations along very different paths.

Before we learn about how these transformations happened, let’s take a moment to see how much you remember about India’s and China’s experiences with imperialism. By the mid-1770s, this country was ruled directly by a British company. A British company held a monopoly over trade here by the early 1700s. European involvement began with trade. Relying for centuries on tradition made this country vulnerable to Europeans. British victories in the Opium Wars forced the opening of more trading ports. Rulers were unable to resist European power. Rulers tried to limit the trading rights of Europeans. Read each statement.
Then say its correct location
India, China, or both. Why would some Indians, like this soldier, put their lives in danger for the British? About 800,000 Indian soldiers served in World War I. These soldiers served on the western front in France and the Middle East. What did Gandhi’s followers hope to achieve by engaging in civil disobedience? How did the British respond to Indian acts of civil disobedience in the early 1920s? Gandhi’s satyagraha (truth-force) movement rejected violence and urged Indians to practice nonviolent civil disobedience. Why did Gandhi lead his followers on the Salt March? This Chinese propaganda poster shows Mao heroically leading his army. How did the Long March both hurt and help Mao Zedong’s struggle for power? Let’s compare Gandhi and Mao as historical figures. Assign each phrase below to its correct category: Uniquely Gandhi, Uniquely Mao, or both. Believed revolution was the solution Transformed his country Led his people on a march to protest government policies Led his followers on a march to escape his enemies Was arrested and spent time in jail Violently attacked his opponents Helped establish a political party Son of a farmer Supported by the common people, rather than by elites Practiced nonviolent resistance Received a formal higher education Son of a prominent government official Complete your T-diagram with the three most important things that the leaders of India and China did to help shape the future of their nations. Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)

Mao Zedong

Long March

Amritsar Massacre

Mohandas Gandhi

Kemal Ataturk a Chinese military and political leader who led the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party or KMT) for five decades and was head of state of the Chinese Nationalist government between 1928 and 1949. a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People's Republic of China. He was responsible for the disastrous policies of the 'Great Leap Forward' and the 'Cultural Revolution'. the 6,000 mile journey made by Communist Chinese to escape Nationalist troops. British soldiers opened fire on a large crowd of peaceful, unarmed demonstrators, killing nearly 400 people. the leader of the Indian nationalist movement against British rule, and is widely considered the father of his country. His doctrine of non-violent protest to achieve political and social progress has been hugely influential. a Turkish nationalist leader and founder and first president of the republic of Turkey Examine this map.
What area of the world is this?
What happened to the Ottoman Empire between 1807 and 1924?
How might the shrinking of the Ottoman Empire have affected this region? Kemal Mustafa defeated Greek forces sent to claim Turkish territory after WWI and established the Republic of Turkey

He later became known as Kemal Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks"

As the first president of Turkey he sought to turn it into a modern nation.
discarding Islamic law and religious courts.
giving women civil rights and the right to vote.
banning the fez, the traditional Ottoman hat.
requiring the Turkish language be written using the Latin alphabet rather than in Arabic script.
compelling all Turks to take surnames. In 1921 Reza Kahn led an overthrow of Persia's shah, or emperor, becoming shah himself in 1925.

Reza Shah Pahlavi made many reforms, including:
•expanding secular schools.
•ending the requirement that women wear veils.
•urging women to enter the workforce.
•building roads, railroads, and factories.
•expanding trading ties with Germany.

Reza Shah Pahlavi ruled as an autocrat:
•He silenced the press.
•He jailed, exiled, or executed his opponents.

In 1935 he changed Persia's name to Iran What is Zionism?

What is the name of the Declaration in which the British government declared its support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine?

______ gained control of Syria and Lebanon, and _______ gained control of Iraq in the Palestine Mandate. Hundreds of thousands of Africans served in European armies in WWI, and tens of thousands of them lost their lives.

This wartime experience did much to increase nationalist feeling in Africa.

WWI created great economic hardship in many parts of Africa.

No Africans were involved in the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles and the European powers gave Germany's African colonies to other countries as mandates rather than granting them Independence. What is an example of a brief speech that might have been given at the first Pan-African Congress in 1919? In a few sentences, summarize the arguments in favor of Independence for African colonies. North African Arabs took action to win independence in British-controlled Egypt.

After many violent protests, the British eventually recognized that they could not maintain full control of Egypt.

In February 1922 they formally declared that Egypt was an independent nation.

This was a victory for nationalism in Africa. During World War I, some 10 million Europeans were killed, about 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million seriously wounded, mostly young men of working age and middle class backgrounds.

This loss, combined with the destruction of land and property, led to a European situation of grave pessimism and poverty for many.

Living conditions declined dramatically at the close of the war, the infant mortality rate skyrocketed, and life was quite difficult for Europeans of the period.

The widespread material destruction totaled billions of dollars of damage in Europe. The Allies bore the brunt of the debt, and material damages, France especially.

But the Central Powers were punished severely by the war's concluding treaties.
Germany lost 15 percent of its pre-war capacity, all of its foreign investments, and 90 percent of its mercantile fleet.
The Treaty of Versailles imposed reparations payments which were generally considered intolerable and impossible.
In Austria, agricultural production fell 53 percent from pre-war levels, and starvation was a persistent problem.

Inflation hit all of Europe in the first years after the war, as pent up demand was released and production fell off due to a shortage of raw materials.
By 1920, prices in Hungary were 23,000 times what they had been before the war, and in Russia the multiplier was 4 million.
A sharp depression in 1920 and 1921 corrected prices to some extent. This depression, however, meant that the debtor countries increasingly found it impossible to pay their war debts. Germany pleaded with Britain and France for a moratorium on reparations payments, but France would not agree, and in fact, sent troops into the Ruhr in 1923, when Germany defaulted on its payments. In 1924, a solution was presented in the form of the Dawes Plan, presented by the American, Charles Dawes. Under this plan the total sum owed by Germany would remain the same, but the yearly payments were reduced, and Germany was granted a loan. The German Chamber of Deputies accepted the plan on August 27, 1924. As a result, the German mark began to stabilize, and Germany was able to pay on time for a short while. Meanwhile, the European Allies had their own financial problems.
They ended the war deeply indebted to the United States.
The United States demanded payment in gold and dollars, which the Allies borrowed from creditor nations, creating even greater debt elsewhere. From 1925 to 1929, Europe entered a period of relative prosperity and stability.
However, unemployment remained high, and population growth outstripped economic growth. During this time, world trade increased and speculative investment increased as the result of better economic times.
US creditors, flush with capital coming in from Europe, led this speculative movement. Germany continued to struggle with reparations payments, and in 1930, the Young Plan replaced the Dawes Plan, lowering annual payments yet again, but to no avail.
In attempts to maintain benefits for the unemployed and drive prices down, taxes were hiked, and unemployment shot up again.
As the Great Depression that had struck the United States in 1929 began to set in throughout Europe in the early 30s, banks began to collapse.
Despite international loans, Germany, and Europe as a whole, plunged into depression, during which currencies collapsed and all hope of stability was dashed.
Despite efforts to stabilize world prices and European employment, Europe remained mired in depression until the outbreak of World War II. Manchurian Incident

(1931) using an explosion on a Japanese-controlled Southern Manchurian railroad as an excuse, Japanese military forces conquered Manchuria and set up a puppet government Manchukuo

Japanese puppet state (1932-1945) formed in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia Anti-Comintern Pact

(1936) agreement signed between Germany and Japan in which they established their opposition to the Comintern, a Soviet-sponsored international organization aimed at spreading communism Nanjing Massacre

(1937) the murder of as many as 300,000 Chinese men, women, and children by Japanese troops Events in Japan 1929-1940

1929 The Great Depressions hits Japan
1931 Japan takes control of Manchuria, China
1933 Japan Withdraws from the League of Nations
1934 Japan announces it will no longer submit to limits on its navy
1936 Japan signs an agreement with Germany
1937 Japanese troops kill hundreds of thousands of civilians in Nanjing, China
1940 Japan attempts to expand its power in Asia by proposing an economic alliance of Asian nations. JAPAN IN THE 1920S

Despite Japan’s emerging from World War I as a
strong nation, its postwar years were not easy. Some of its problems were economic. Peasants and rural workers did not share in the nation’s new prosperity. As industrial output slowed after the war, many people lost their jobs. Strikes, labor disputes, and unrest were common.

Japan did not have enough natural resources to
keep its industries supplied. Instead it had to import materials, paid for with money from the sales of goods to other countries. As those countries passed tariffs to protect their own goods from competition, trade slowed. Expanding Japan’s land holdings seemed to be the only way it could get the natural resources it needed. Japan’s shift from a feudal, agricultural nation to a more urban, industrial country also brought changes to its society during the 1920s. Education and new ideas from the West helped democracy flourish, along with a vibrant system of political parties. Some people began to question traditional values such as obedience and respect for authority. Others resented this, fearing that the country was becoming corrupt.

Name reasons for Japan’s economic troubles in the 1920s. GROWING MILITARY INFLUENCE

Many Japanese started to feel that the government was powerless to help during the hard economic times of 1927, which were soon made worse by effects of the Great Depression. Losing faith in the government, many Japanese turned to the military for leadership. Military officials wanted Japan under military rule yet still dedicated to its emperor. Many military leaders were unhappy with the civilian government’s approach to foreign policy. They felt the government was too cooperative with major Western powers, especially in its promise to limit the size of the Japanese navy. This action ended the possibility of overseas expansion. Many Japanese were offended when the United States banned Japanese immigration in 1924. More people questioned why the Japanese government was so agreeable with the West’s requests. The nationalist spirit grew, as people put
their faith in a military that promised a strong Japan.

Why do you think Japanese citizens wanted the military to grow? JAPANESE AGGRESSION

As Japanese society grew more military-oriented, military leaders began to focus on creating brave soldiers who would never surrender. They hoped these soldiers would make up for the military’s lack of modern weapons. Military leaders tried to instill a fighting spirit in the public, even visiting Japanese schools. Some civilian leaders were even assassinated. In time, the government became dominated by the
military.

The Japanese’s military’s growing power is seen in the Manchurian Incident. The army decided to conquer Manchuria, a region in China that had rich natural resources. Many felt these resources could help the growing empire depend less on trade with the West and compete better with other nations. Because the Japanese public supported the invasion, the government could not stop it. Manchuria became
Manchukuo, a state under Japanese control. The military set up a government in the region.

Japan faced disapproval from the League of Nations for its actions in Manchuria. As a result, Japan withdrew from the league in 1933. Military leaders announced that they would determine the size of the navy. In 1936, Japan signed an agreement with
Germany. The Anti-Comintern Pact held that the two nations would work together to oppose communism and help each other if the Soviet Union attacked them. Italy joined the pact a year later.

Hostilities grew between China and Japan, leading to war in 1937. An early battle took place in the Chinese city of Nanjing, also called Nanking. The Japanese captured this city and then killed about 300,000 people, many of them civilians, in what became known as the Nanjing Massacre.

Japan needed resources to continue the war. It turned to Southeast Asia, calling for the creation of a plan in which a group of nations in the region would combine resources to keep from depending on the West. In reality, the plan was simply Japan’s attempt to grow its empire.

How did Japanese military leaders try to make up for not having modern weapons?

What was the purpose of the Anti-Comintern Pact?

Why did Japan become interested in Southeast Asia? What is Nationalism? a sense of pride and devotion to one’s nation The cartoon below refers to European dependence on the United States for loans and investment during the 1920s. What attitude is suggested by the people?
What does the cartoon indicate about the spread of the Depression to Europe? Why are the elements combined under the heading, "The March of World Reaction?"
How does the cartoon connect Wall Street to the impact of the Depression? "The March of World Reaction" From Revolutionary Age, October 10, 1931 Compare the numbers of unemployed in the European countries included in the chart above What striking similarities or differences do you see? No fewer than a 100,000 unemployed workers drew the dole each week at the Neukölln unemployment office in Berlin. The photograph below depicts French textile operatives marching through Roubaix during a demonstration. What does the photograph indicate about those involved in protests and demontrations on behalf of the poor and unemployed?

What kinds of people are involved in the protests? Note the presence of women as well as men of all ages. What does such diversity indicate about the nature of the protests?

How visible are the police and other authorities? What does their presence in pictures such as this indicate about the potential for conflict during the demonstrations? In the following cartoon, the sign reads, "The Struggle Against Fascism," and the policeman's speech bubble contains the mandate, "Demonstrating is prohibited." What does the image indicate about views of workers' demonstrations during the Depression?

Why are the police prohibiting demonstrations?

What is the significance of the struggle against fascism? The modern Arab-Israeli conflict over the control of land in the Middle East has long resisted attempts at resolution. The roots of this conflict can be traced back many years.
In the late 1800s Jews from Europe began to establish small colonies in Palestine, their ancient homeland, as part of an effort to rebuild a Jewish state. By the early 1900s, a growing Arab nationalist movement had also developed, which wanted to form an independent Arab state in the Middle East.
When World War I ended, France and Great Britain set up mandates in the Middle East. Both Arabs and Jews were unhappy with this decision. Still, after the war, thousands of foreign-born Arabs and Jews moved to Palestine. Tensions increased, and violence between the two groups broke out.
In an attempt at compromise, the United Nations issued a plan to divide Palestine between Jews and Arabs in 1947. Although the Jews accepted this plan, Arabs felt it was unfair and rejected it. In 1948 Britain pulled out of Palestine and the state of Israel was created. Five Arab states immediately attacked Israel. Although Israel won this war, it was the first of many Arab-Israeli wars that followed. Today, the Arab-Israeli conflict continues.
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