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Nonverbal Comm. Appearance & Attraction
Transcript of Nonverbal Comm. Appearance & Attraction
Albert Hellebuick Nonverbal Communication
Physical Appearance & Attraction Nonverbal Communication Appearance & Adornment Perceptions Associated with
Physical Attractiveness Importance of Physical Appearance & Adornment Physical Attractiveness in Relationships Tendency to search for partners who are within a similar range of our own level of attractiveness
-Applies to friendships & marriages (Cash & Derlega, 1978)
-Some research suggests that couples who are similar in attractiveness have happier relationships (Patzer, 1985)
1. Attractive people sometimes have a hard time living up to the high expectations
2. Having a good relationship & a positive style of communication may actually make you seem more physically attractive to your partner -Messages that people exchange beyond
-People believe the nonverbal messages, over the verbal, & judge others attitudes & feelings from it
-Popularized estimate in magazines & TV say that 93% of meaning is nonverbal, other estimates put it at about 66% which is 2/3's from nonverbal cues (Birdwhistell,1955)
-Nonverbal is a universally recognized language system -Appearance cues: facial structure, height, weight, & coloring
-Adornment cues: clothing, jewelry, & perfume worn on body
-Our bodies & how we dress, groom, & decorate them, are the first signals of who we are, how attractive we are to others, & what our place is in the social hierarchy, among other messages
-You can only make a first impression once
Appearances can be deceiving --Aesop -The United States is highly conscious of their physical appearances as a whole
-82% of men & 93% of women are actively trying to develop & maintain an "attractive" appearance (Cash 1988)
-SO much $$ is spent on clothing, jewelry, shoes, makeup, perfume, deodorant, & dieting products
-Fashion industry, beauty salons, spas, orthodontic, exercise gyms, & plastic surgery clinics all still thrive during tough economic times because we always will be worried about how we appear -People associate friendliness, ambition, likeability, & intelligence with an attractive appearance (beauty bias) (Dion, 1986)
-Halo Effect or "What is beautiful is good" hypothesis
-perceived by most but not actual -Research suggests that attractive people have some advantages when it comes to developing romantic relationships
-Physical appearance is one of the best predictors of romantic attraction (Dion, 1986)
-Across various types of relationships people think physical attractiveness is most important in romantic relationships & cross-sex friendships (Sprecher & Regan, 2002)
-Women who consider themselves to be highly desirable are more choosy in physical appearance in mates, men are more choosy when they perceive there are a lot of attractive women available to date -Research shows that people behave differently when they feel attractive
-People also can associate good looking people with being vain, self-centered, materialistic, & snobbish (Dermer & Thiel, 1975)
-"What is beautiful is self-centered" hypothesis Advantages & Disadvantages Pedestal Effect -People expect more from good-looking people but over time they realize they have strengths & weaknesses like everybody else which may make them less desirable (Solnick & Schweitzer, 1999) Interaction Appearance Theory -If you are in a satisfying relationship & have positive interactions with someone, you are likely to see that person as more attractive
-Negative interaction has an even stronger effect on ratings of attractiveness than positive does
-People in happy relationships often view their partners as more attractive than other people do (Simpson, Lerma, & Gangestad, 1990) (Albana, Knapp & Thenue, 2002) Physical Attractiveness in Professional Contexts -Studies show people have more positive expectations for attractive versus average or non-attractive students.
-Teachers were more likely to call on & encourage the better-looking students
-People were also more lenient when attractive students would misbehave (Dion, 1972)
-A study with a good-looking vs. non-attractive child where they both had the exact same behavior problems they tended to explain the bad behavior as personality characteristics with the non-attractive kid, where they explained the attractive kids as he may have just been having a bad day -Beauty can be an asset for teachers.
-A study done showed that classes taught by better-looking instructors were regarded as better than classes taught by less-attractive. This effect was stronger for males than females (Hamermesh & Parker, 2005)
-Other research shows that other factors can outweigh the attractiveness in student evaluations of teachers
-Such as warm & expressive nonverbal behaviors, they argued that "when people actually interact with teachers, the effects of physical attractiveness become diluted by the other information available." -Physical attractiveness can be an asset in a employment interview
-When two people equally qualified for a job, the better-looking person is more likely to get the job especially if the position requires interpersonal skills (Cash & Kilcullen, 1985) Glass Ceiling Effect -For women good looks are an asset when interviewing for entry-level positions but a disadvantage when interviewing for top managerial positions (Frieze, Olson, & Russel, 1991)
-If a woman is too attractive, she may by falsely judged as too feminine to take on a traditionally masculine role Body Features -Height & weight influence how attractive a person is judged to be
-Height appears to be a universally attractive feature in men (Shepperd & Strathman, 1989)
-In some places, thinness is less valued than heaviness is, in other places it's the opposite
-The U.S. people compare their bodies to what is made to be the ideal body in media Body Image -Cultural standards influence people's idea on what a beautiful body is.
-Body image-How people think, feel, & behave regarding their physical attributes (Muth & Cash, 1997)
-Body image evaluation-Judgements people make about their physical appearance
-Body image investment-Behaviors people engage in to enhance their appearance (Cash & Szymanski, 1995) -Studies have shown that the weights women perceive as ideal for their body often fall below range of healthy weight for their size (Huon, 1990) -Women who are so obsessed with their weight & perceive themselves to be heavier than they are are more likely to develop eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia (Galgan, 1989) -Social Comparison Theory- People have an innate need to compare themselves with others (Festinger, 1954) -People tend to make more upward comparisons than downward ones, meaning they tend to compare themselves to people that look better than themselves. -Matching Hypothesis (Berscheid & Walster, 1974): Appearance in Social Media -Importance of appearance in profile pictures May be looked at more negatively May be looked at more positively Sources Burgoon, Judee K., Laura K. Guerrero, and Kory Floyd. Nonverbal Communication. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2010. Print.
The Power of Body Language. Dir. CBS. Perf. Tonya Reiman. CBS, 2007. Web. <http://youtu.be/7cg192cQYUA>.
The Halo Effect. Dir. HeroicImaginationTV. HeroicImaginationTV, 2011. Web. <http://youtu.be/UEho_4ejkNw>.
Attraction: The Matching Phenomena. Dir. Discovery Channel. Perf. Douglas Kenrick. Discovery Channel, 2010. Web. <http://youtu.be/2aTYuFJiGzw>.
Female CEOs Are Breaking The Glass Ceiling. Dir. ABC News. ABC News, 2010. Web. <http://youtu.be/EpjKEZ_K6Wc>.
Body Image: Media vs Mind. Inspectorgadgetism, 2010. Web. <http://youtu.be/24Xa1Nw8eJY>.