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ADVANCED GRAMMAR ONE (Fourth Edition)

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Puente CaroSanchez

on 24 August 2017

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Transcript of ADVANCED GRAMMAR ONE (Fourth Edition)

ADVANCED grammar one
welcome to
ADvanced grammar one

BEFORE STARTING, ANSWER THIS QUESTION:
WHAT
IS
GRAMMAR?
Simple
Present
Present
Progressive
We use it for:
- FACTS
Most of the people in Peru
love
soccer.
-Habits
After lunch every Saturday,
Luis
likes
to take a nap.
-SEQUENCES
He
arrives
home,
says
hello
to his mother and
goes
to his bedroom.
WE USE IT FOR:
-Actions or events
in
progress at the moment
(not finished!)
Carlos
is playing
chess with his brother.
We
are studying
the present time.
Some of the students
are using
their cell phones.
BE CAREFUL!
we generally don't use the progressive with non-action verbs.
I am wanting some ketchup with my french fries.
want
Present
Perfect
Present
Perfect
Progressive
We use it to:
-CONNECT COMPLETED
ACTION IN THE PAST
WITH
THE PRESENT
It is often used with
for
and
since
I
've worked
at ICPNA
for
three years.
I
've worked
at ICPNA
since
2014.
WE ALSO USE IT TO:
-CONNECT THE PAST
WITH
THE PRESENT
BUT WITH ACTIONS THAT
ARE NOT COMPLETED
I
've been doing
my homework
since
8:00 p.m.
I
've been studying
the present tense
for
almost one hour.
ACTION VERBS
ACTION VERBS
DESCRIBE...

WELL...
ACTIONS.
NON-ACTION VERBs
non-action
verbs describe
states
such as:
-Appearance (e.g. seem)
-emotions (e.g. love)
-mental states (e.g. know)
-perceptions (e.g. hear)
-possession (e.g.own)
-wants (e.g. need)
count and non-count nouns
what is a noun?
PROPER NOUNS
Particular things:


Mr. Limas
Peru
The Statue of Liberty
Lambayeque
COMMON NOUNS
general things:
lawyer
country
city
landscape
common nouns
Count nouns
Non-count nouns
*things you can count separately.
*they can be singular
or plural.
*you can use
A
OR
AN
BEFORE THEM.
*THINGS YOU CANNOT
COUNT SEPARATELY.
*THEY USUALLY DON'T HAVE
PLURAL FORM.
*THEY USUALLY CAN'T USE
A

OR
AN
.
NON-COUNT NOUNS
ABSTRACTIONS
DISEASES
FOOD AND DRINK
NATURAL PHENOMENA
PARTICLES
OTHERS
PAST TIME
SIMPLE
PAST
PAST
PROGRESSIVE
WE USE IT FOR:

An
action, event or state
that occurred in the past
at a specific time
or general time.
You
played
soccer yesterday/ last week / month / year.
She
combed
her hair.
She
went to
school.
(specific)
(general)
we use it for:
An action that was
in progress
at a time in the past
We were watching a movie at my house.
I was studying for my next class with Mr. Velásquez.
CAN YOU USE NON-ACTION VERBS WITH THE PAST PROGRESSIVE?
present perfect
also known as the indefinite past.
He
has traveled
to Switzerland.
I
have eaten
sushi.
We
have completed
the quest.
She
has been
a teacher.
NEVER
USE A TIME EXPRESSION WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT
because it's indefinite!
if the present perfect is the indefinite past,
which grammar structure is the definite past?
THE
SIMPLE PAST!
used to
would
habits, events or states
in the past that
are not true in the present
habits, events or states
in the past that
are not true in the present
*only use "used to" for past location,state of being or possession
PAST PERFECT
TO TALK ABOUT AN ACTION THAT HAPPENED BEFORE ANOTHER ACTION IN THE PAST.
When the teacher arrived, I had finished my homework.
By 8:00 p.m., she had finished doing the dishes.
DO NOT USE BEFORE OR AFTER WITH THE PAST PERFECT.
USE THE SIMPLE PAST INSTEAD.
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
FOR AN ACTION THAT WAS
IN PROGRESS
BEFORE ANOTHER ACTION IN THE PAST.
for something we had done
several times
up to a point in the past and
continued to do after that point
I
had been finishing
my homework when the teacher arrived.

She
had been putting
make up on when the earthquake started.

He was a wonderful guitarist. He
had been playing
ever since he was a teenager.

I
had been watching
the program every week, but I missed the last episode.

I
had been watching
that program every week since it started, but I missed the last episode.

They
had been staying
with us (several days) since the previous week.

She
had been volunteering
with us for 4 years. She was a great asset to our organization. However, she left us last year.

one more time:
Can you use non-action verbs with the past perfect progressive?
of course not!
CAN WE EXPRESS FUTURE IN THE PAST?
YES!
future time
Will
Be going to
We use it for:
ACTIONS DECIDED AT THE MOMENT OF SPEAKING
(sudden decision)
You look very busy. I will help you with the housework.
(The doorbell rings) I’ll get it.
Yeah, I got a dinner invitation. I'll buy a black dress and go for dinner.
Oliver’ll be back soon.
We won’t be ready.
Do you think it’ll rain this afternoon?
Peru vs. Paraguay, I think we'll...
I'm not sure I'll make it for today's class
We use it for:
Future situations
that are planned.
We are going to take the first quiz on Monday. That is why, I'm going to study on Saturday, and I'm not going to the party.
future progressive
be going to be
will be
verb
-ing
C
To describe actions that will be in progress at a certain time in the future.
Simple
Present
Present progressive
We use it for:
Future action, state or event that is
part of a schedule or time table.
The train leaves at 10:00.
My plane leaves at 4pm tomorrow.
The match starts at 8pm.
The teachers goes home at 9:00.
We use it for:
Future action or event that has
already been arranged.
I'm finishing at 9:00.
Jamie is coming at 6pm.
We're going to the movies on Saturday.
clauses
We use clauses to talk about two separate actions in the future.
As soon as we finish this lesson, we will start the quiz.
dependent clause
(simple present)
independent clause
(future structure)
Remember that the
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
is in
SIMPLE PRESENT
and the
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
is in
A FUTURE STRUCTURE
.
does the future have a past?
YES!
future perfect
We use it to show an action, state or event that will happen
before a certain time in the future.
past
present
future
future perfect
IS THERE A FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE?
YES!
By the time
we finish the course, we
will have learned
a lot of grammar, ... hopefully.
Do you think you
will have finished
it
by next Thursday
?
In 5 years
time
I’ll have finished
university and I’ll be able to earn some money at last.
I think astronauts
will have landed
on Mars
by the year 2020
.
I
’ll have finished

in an hour
and then you can use the computer.


By Monday 17th at 5.30pm
, we
'll have taken
the mid-term exam.
modals of necessity
what are modals?
they are auxiliary verbs. they have only one form for all persons.
the modals are:
can
could
may
might

shall
should
will
would
must
ought to
there are two types of modals:
SIMPLE MODALS
TO SHOW DEGREES OF NECESSITY IN THE
PRESENT
AND THE
FUTURE
.
(modal + base form)
PERFECT MODALS
TO SHOW DEGREES OF NECESSITY IN THE
PAST
.
(MODAL + HAVE + P.P.)
modals show speakers' attitude towards the action they are describing.
we use them to talk about:
obligations
advice
expectations
suggestions
MODAL-LIKE EXPRESSIONS
MUST
HAVE TO / HAVE GOT TO
SHOULD
OUGHT TO
MAY
BE ALLOWED TO
MODALS OF CERTAINTY
*We can use modals to express degrees of certainty. With these modals we speculate based on logic and facts.
*We can use the modal with progressive and simple forms.
*Remember! These modals are to show degrees of certainty. When you are completely sure about something, do not use modals.
must / have to / have got to
HOW POSITIVE ARE ABOUT WHAT YOU ARE SAYING?
(90% sure positive)
can't / couldn't
(90%sure negative)
must not
(75% sure positive)
no contraction!
could / couldn't
(90% sure in questions)
for
the
present
may / might / could
may not / might not
could / might
(50% sure positive)
(50% sure negative)
(50% in questions)
for
the
present
No
contraction!
must have / had to have + p.p.
can't have / couldn't have + p.p.
must not have + p.p.
can have / could have + p.p.
(90% sure positive)
(it suggests impossibility)
(75% sure positive)
(90% sure in questions)
for
the
past
may have / might have / could have + p.p.
could have + p.p
may not have / might not have + p.p.
might have / could have + p.p.
(50% sure positive)
(It has two meanings!!)
(50% sure negative)
(50% sure in questions)
for
the
past
should / ought to
may / might / could
may or might + not / never
(90% sure)
(50% sure)
(negative)
for
the
future
8:00 p.m.
dishes done
the teacher arrived

homework done
NO!
FUTURE IN THE PAST
When I was in high school, I promised my mom that I would become a lawyer. Thus, I knew I was going to law school after high school graduation.
How has your life changed for the last 10 years?

Talk about studies, preferences, places where you live and friends
What not to do when you dine internationally.
Take notes.
Reading comprehension
1. What were some cultural errors that the author and his wife made during their visit to Masayuki and Yukiko's home?
2. What did the author do as a result of feeling uncomfortable about aspects of the evening with his Japanese friends?
3. The author says that Masayuki and Yukiko never gave any indication that anything was wrong during the evening. What might this say about Japanese culture?

1. gracious
2. pointer
3. chuckle
4. perplexed
5. praise
6. decline
7. have someone over
8. rectify
after you read
a
b
1. b
2. b
3. a
4 . b
5. a
6. a

exercise 2
2. had to worry
3. supposed to do
4. were supposed to leave
5. should we have left
6. don't have to leave
7. should you tip
8. you're supposed to do
9. should you leave
10. ought to have given
11. could have left
exercise 3

2. should
3. should
4. shouldn't have
5. are not supposed to
6. must
exercise 4
2. They should have arranged their shoes so that they were pointing toward the door.
3. They shouldn't have said anything about the gift they presented it.
4. They shouldn't have taken a rock and roll CD as a gift.
5. Helen shouldn't have taken the sushi.
6. They should have refused the first offer of a drink.
7. They could (or might) have taken a box of chocolates.
8. They could (or might) have taken flowers.
9. They could (or might) have declined the sushi.
10. They could (or might) have left earlier.
modals of Necessity
strong obligation / NECESSITY
must / have to / have got to
Formal
Informal
F / I
must
have got
to
have to
can't avoid
the obligation

formal

use it for the future
and present
A father
must
educate his child well.
The government
must
protect its citizens.
The city mayor
must
make sure that the public greens areas are taken care of.
A citizen
must not
litter. He
must
take care of the city.
A driver
must
drive when he is sober.
We
must not
smoke here (
prohibited
)
I
have to
study for my exams.
She
has to
take a driving test.
Does
she
have to
study tomorrow?
He
has to
apply for a new job.
We
have to
take care of our little sister.
We
don't have to go
the party.
You
don't have to
take the grammar exam...
just kidding
. You
have to
.
I
've got to
lose weight.
You
've got to
clean your bedroom.
We
've got to
leave early to beat up the traffic.
You
've got to
be more careful when you drive.
future necessity
will + have + to
We
'll have to
contact the mayor before we start the new project.
I
'll have to
get a visa before I go to Uzbekistan.
We
'll have to
take a make-up exam.
past necessity
must + have + pp
had to + base form
They
had to take
the bullet train to arrive on time.
I
had to study
over night for my exam.
We
had to apologize
with our friend.
use
have to
for
questions
negatives
formal and informal
(no need to go, there is a choice)
recommendation - warning
had better - should = recommendation
specific situations
general / specific situations
You
should
brush your teeth before you go to bed.
You
should not
skip breakfast. It gives you energy.
You
should
get a medical check-up annually.

We'
d better
be careful when we walk on this street.
If not you could get robbed.
You
'd better
come at 5 pm for your Math exam.
If not, you won't take it.
You
'd better
pick me up. I have no money.
You
'd better
not talk to me in that way!
desperate hope
warning!!!
expectation, but ....
Use "
be supposed to
" only for present and past.
I
'm supposed to
finish this paper for this Monday, but I am not sure whether I can.
I
was supposed to
apply for the CEO position yesterday, but I completely forgot it.
You
weren't supposed to
ask her out, what did you do it?
You
were supposed to
eat with your right hand when you dined withe the Pattel. They are from India.
You
are supposed
to go to university after high school graduation.
You
're supposed
to pass grammar one.
strong expectation
Suggestions
polite suggestions about the present and future
could / might + base form
We
could
invite your boyfriend over for dinner.
He
could
give you a ride to your house.
I
could
help you with your Math homework if you want.
I
could
talk with her if necessary.
polite suggestions about a past opportunity
could have / might have
You
could have
come earlier.
You
could have
talked with her if you had come on time.
You
could have
asked me before, now it's too late.
past (affirmative, negative, questions)
You
didn't have

to
wait for me.
I
didn't have

to
call the company.
I
had to
study for my exams.
She
had to
take a driving test.
Did
she
have to
study the next day?
He
had to
apply for a new job.
advice
should / ought to
Use it for giving advice.
Use it for negative and questions.
Ex.
You
ought to
wake up early. (+)
You
ought to
pay attention. (+)
Where
should
I stay in Rome
?
You
shouldn't
keep your cell phone close to you when you sleep. (-)
should have / ought to have + pp
You
should have
cleaned your shoes.
You
shouldn't have
used hands to eat.
EXERCISE 1
2. a
3. b
4. b
5. a
6. a
7. a
8. b
EXERCISE 2
2. may have had to
3. might be
4. could be working
5. must have
6. might be meeting
7. should be
8. must have been visiting
EXERCISE 3
2. could have caused
3. must be
4. might have brought
5. could ... have disappeared
6. could ... have existed
7. had to have existed
8. must have become
9. Could there really have been
10. might be
11. may have influenced
12. might still be walking/might still walk
Exercise 5
1. might
2. must have eaten
3. must have been stung
4. might carry
5. might report
6. may be (might be or could be)
7. might have developed
8. may be
Exercise 6
A. speech class
B.
2. a
3. b
4. b
5. a
6. a
7. b
8. a
9. b
10. a
Exercise 7
2. A: have
3. A: to
4. B: have
5. A: to
6. B: have
Why did something happened
in the class?
He got fired from his job!!!
Why?

Speculate about why he got fired from his job.
speculate about
the present
Where is Mike?
Speculate about where he is.
Watch this video and take notes about mysterious archaeological discoveries.
Then choose one and try to explain what it is.
Exercise 3
2. could have caused
3. must be
4. might have brought
5. could ...have disappeared
6. could ... have existed
7. had to have existed
8. must have become
9. Could there really have been
10. might be
11. may have influenced
12. might still be walking / might
still walk

Exercise 2
2. may have had to
3. might be
4. could be working
5. must have
6. might be meeting
7. should be
8. must have been visiting
Exercise 8
1. The man must have tried to cash the check.
2. The girl must not have tied the other end of the rope to something.
3. The monks must have correctly pointed the signposts in the direction they had come from.
4. The man must have been struck by lightning.

When /Where was the picture taken?
Why was the person doing what he / she was doing?
What was he /she feeling?

Look at the pictures and speculate about them. Use modal of present, past and future certainty.
Watch this video. Take notes and get ready to answer some questions.
What causes high blood pressure?
What is the best diet for reducing high blood pressure?
How To Overcome High Blood Pressure Naturally
youtube video
After you read
A
1. side with
2. telling
3. obese
4. BMI
5. champ
6. drag
7. in moderation
8. brimmed
9. devote
10. Sunblock
B.
1. b
2. d
3. d
4. c
5. c
6. b

Exercise 1
2. moderation / habit
3. food, salt, sugar, cholesterol / calories
4. warmth / dangers
5. skin cancer / patients
6. sunblock, sun / minutes
7. shape, tennis, exercise/ champ
8. - / husband, BMI, category
9. baldness / cure
10. hair / years

Exercise 2
2. a work
3. a history
4. a talk
5. space
6. a time
7. criteria
8. time
9. work
10. fish
11. Soda
12. milk
13. history
14. a film
Write 3 paragraphs about an interesting world mystery
you have heard.
How was Macchu Pichu built?
How were the Nazca Line made?
How was South America populated?
Use modals of certainty, then underline them.
Exercise 3
2. a. some b. a history
3. a. any b. a game of
4. a. some b. a piece of
5. a. any b. a drop of
6. a. any b. a grain of
7. a. some b. a piece of
8. a. some b. a piece of
Exercise 4
1. The two best films...
2. The two funniest people...
3. The best advice...
4. The most enjoyable...
5. The most beautiful work...
6. The best news...
7. The worst traffic...
8. The most interesting experience...
Exercise 6
good news
furniture
are
much
meat
coffee
time
Exercise 7
3, 4, 7, 9: reduced
5, 6, 8, 10: non reduced
Watch this video. Take notes.
Answers these questions
1. What place is the video about? Where is it?

2. What is the problem?

3. What's an example of a serious environmental problem?

After you read
A
1. e
2. d
3. g
4. h
5. c
6. a
7. b
8. f
B.
1. F. Easter Island was settled about
the year 900 by Polynesians.
2. T
3. T
4. F. The Easter Islanders used canoe rails to
move their statues
5. T
6. T
7. F Deforestation led to the islands becoming
dryer

Exercise 1
A.
2 D
3 N
4 D
5 G
6 G
7 G
8 N
9 D
10 D
B.
2 A
3 B
4 A
5 B
EXERCISE 2
EXCERPT 1
2 THE
3 THE
4 THE
5 N/a
6 A
7 THE
8 N/A
9 THE
10 THE
11 THE
12 THE
EXCERPT 2
13 THE
14 THE
15 A
16 THE
17 THE
18 THE
19 A
20 THE
21 THE
22 N/A
23 THE
EXERCISE 3
EXCERPT 1
2 THE
3 A
4 THE
5 THE
6 THE
7 A
8 THE
9 N/A
EXCERPT 2
10 THE
11 A
12 N/A
13 AN
14 THE
15 THE
16 THE
17 THE
18 N/A
19 THE
20 THE
21 N/A
22 THE
23 THE
permafrost
Exercise 5
the nuclear = nuclear
the additional= additional
the petroleum = petroleum
the problems = problems
a big supporter
the major = major
the strict = strict
a perfect world
a necessity

Exercise 6
A. national parks
B.
2 a
3 a
4 a
5 a
6 a
7 b
8 a
9 a
10 b
Generic nouns:
Generic nouns are nouns that refer to
ALL
members of a group or class.

They’re different from definite nouns (e.g. the book) and non-specific nouns (e.g. a book)

in that the sentence

there must be a blanket statement or question
. In other words,

a generic noun represents an entire category or class of persons, places of things
.


Generic nouns can be singular or plural.

Generic nouns can be used with or without articles.

*Make sure the verb which is modifying the generic noun agrees with the generic noun (e.g. the gang of boys was, the gangs of boys were)
Cats
are animals.

A cat
is an animal.

Sea water
is salty.

Rain forest's weather

is humid and hot.

A book

opens your eyes to a new experience.

Printing
is most liberating invention.

Male lions
are lazy and selfish.

Chocolate
is original from Mexico.

Tomatoes
are original from Peru.
see appendix 2, p. A-2
Quick quiz

1. What tense will you use to talk about your routine and habits? Give two examples

2. What tense will you use to talk about actions that your best friend is doing now? Give two examples.

3. What are stative verbs? Give five examples.

4. What kind of verbs do you use adjectives / adverbs with ?
*use "would" for regular action in the past with expressions like "every day / summer / vacation / Christmas
1. DYI
means
"do it yourself."

2. Old territory of Venezuela
resembled
Venice.

3. She
regretted
not to have studied more.

4. It
smells
weird.

5. Those NIKE shoes
cost
too much.

6. She
lacks
some qualities.

7. He
noticed
the danger sign.
stative verbs - examples
CONNECT THE PAST WITH
THE PRESENT
PRESENT PERFECT
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
It refers to completed actions.
It focuses on the result.
It talks about how much/how many have been completed.

It refers to unfinished actions.
It focuses on the process.
It talks about how long something has been happening.
He’s written 16 books. (He started writing books at some time in the past. So far, he has written 16 books. He may write more books.)
I’ve painted the living room blue. The focus is on the finished result. The activity is finished and we can see the result now.
I’ve read that book you lent me. I finished it yesterday.
She’s written 10 messages.
I've worked for 14 hours.
I’ve been decorating the house this summer. The focus is on the action – decorating – and the action is unfinished.
I’ve been reading that book you lent me. I’ve got another 50 pages to read.
She’s been writing emails for 3 hours.
I usually work 8 hours, but today, I have been working for 14 hours.
https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/es/quick-grammar/present-perfect-simple-and-present-perfect-continuous
1. Those flowers look beautiful. (Non-action)

2.Flora is looking out the window. (Action)

3. I think that's a great idea. (Non-action)

4. I am thinking about my upcoming speech. (Action)

5. We have a brand new car. (Non-action)

6. We are having a party this weekend. (Action)

7. Craig is a real estate agent. (Non-action)

8. Billy is being naughty today.

9. The cook is tasting the food.

examples
1. When George died he and Anne
had been
married for nearly fifty years.
2. She didn’t want to move. She
had lived
in Liverpool all her life.
3. He
had written
three books and he was working on another one.
4. I was sorry when the factory closed. I
had worked
there since I left school.
5. I was pleased to meet George. Although I
had talked
his wife several times, I
had never me
t him.
6. She
had worked
for that university for 6 years by the time she retired.
7. They
had traveled
15 hours when they arrived at London.
What would you say if your parents or siblings decide to choose a spouse for you?

Would you accept it? Why? Why not?
past time - marriage
Talk with your partner
1. What do you think the term "arranged marriage" means?
2. Would you rather find you own person to marry or have someone else select that person for you?
3. Do you think an arranged marriage is likely to be a happy marriage?
1. Peter football
have played / played
yesterday.

2. They
have cleaned / cleaned
the car. It looks new again.

3. Last year we
have gone / went
to Italy.

4. John and Peggy
have just finished / finished
the book.
Now they can watch the film.

5. I
have met / met
my friend two days ago.

6. We
have never visited / never visited
another country before.

7. She
has bought / bought
a new car in 2011.

8. I'm sorry, but I
have forgotten / forgot
my homework.

9.
Have you won / Did you win
the game of chess? I knew you were in that the 15th tournament.

10. The girls
haven't eaten / didn't eat
their lunch yet.
used to + base form
would + base form
repeated past actions

past habits

Every Sunday, I would go for ice cream.

Every Sunday, I used to go for ice cream.
only ‘used to’ is possible when we talk about past states (be), location and possession.
We
used to

live
in New York when I was a kid.

He
used to

be
a nice man, but now he has some issues.

There
didn’t use to

be
a petrol station there. When was it built?

We
used to

own
a farm when I was a child.

She
used to

live
in Italy and
have
a Buick.
examples
If something happened
only once
we
can’t use
‘used to’ or ‘would’ – we
must use the past simple.


I
went to
Paris in 2015.
I
lived
in Korea in 2010.
She
visited
India in 2012.
He
married
last year.
Every Saturday I
would
go on a long bike ride.
My teachers
would
always say “Sit down and shut up!”
Every weekend, they
would
go hiking in the woods.
Every summer, she
would
go to the south and stay there.
When she was a child, she
would
visit her grandparents.
She
would
take car of her elderly mother everyday.
They
would
go on vacation at the lake house every summer.
Sue
would
go to the library every Saturday morning.
EXAMPLES:
tALK WITH YOUR PARTNER. wHAT ACTION HAPPENED FIRST?
EXAMPLES
PAST
FUTURE
IN THE PAST
PRESENT
Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not.

"
Would
" and "
was going to/ were going to
" are used to describe actions, event or state that was planned or expected in the future of the past (before now)
Examples:

I told you he
was going to
come to the party. (plan)
I knew Julie
would
make dinner. (voluntary action)
Jane said Sam
was going to
bring his sister with him, but he came alone. (plan)
I had a feeling that the vacation
was going to
be a disaster. (prediction)
He promised he
would
send a postcard from Egypt. (promise)
The forecast stated that it
was going to
rain the whole day yesterday, but it did not happen. (bad prediction)
Watch this video. Take notes and answer these questions.
1. What is jet lag?
2. What are the causes of it?
3. What are the effects of jet lag?
4. How can you deal with jet lag?
predictions
Examples
(arrangements or intentions)
predictions
(especially when you can see something happening or about to happen)
Look out! You’re going to spill that coffee.
Look at that sky! It's going to rain for sure.
Watch out! You're going hit that car.
examples
a chart showing the departure and arrival times of trains, buses, or planes
examples
examples
when an intention is an arrangement.
you can use either present continuous or be+going to
.
but
when there is a difference,
use p.c. for arrangements
, and
be + going to for intentions
.
Amy’s coming round. (= arrangement between Amy and Daisy)
Amy’s going to come round. (= Amy’s intention)
I’m going to clean my room tonight. (= intention)
I’m cleaning my room tonight.
examples
intention
I'm going to clean my room.
What are you doing this weekend?

What are you going to do this weekend?
Don’t ring at 8 o’clock. I
’ll be watching
Who Wants to be a Millionaire.
This time tomorrow we
’ll be sitting
on the beach. I can’t wait!
At this time tomorrow, she
'll be coming back
home.
At this time next year, I
'll be flying out
to China.
Don’t phone grandma now, she
’ll be having
dinner.
The kids are very quiet. They
’ll be doing
something wrong, I know it!
examples
Examples:

They
will have been talking
for over an hour by the time Thomas
arrives
.
She
is going to have been working
at that company for three years when it finally
closes
.
James
will have been teaching
at the university for more than a year by the time he
leaves
for Asia.
How long
will you have been studying
when you
graduate
?
We
are going to have been driving
for over three days straight when we
get to
Anchorage.
A: When you
finish
your English course,
will you have been living
in New Zealand for over a year?
B: No, I
will not have been living
here that long.
Jason will be tired when he gets home because he
will have been jogging
for over an hour.
Andrea's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she
is going to have been studying
English in the United States for over two years.
What will you have done by next week at this time?
what will you have been doing by Friday next week?
Answers
exercise 2
2. 'm going
3. 'm taking
4. 'm moving
5. 'll mind, 'm going to mind
6. won't be able to use, 's not going to be able to use
7. 'm seeing
8. 'm leaving
9. 'm arriving
10. 'll write
exercise 3
2. 'll meet / 's going to meet, arrives
3. will visit / are going to visit, leave
4. finish, will take / are going to take
5. 'll visit / going to visit, tour
6. fly, 'll buy / 're going to buy
2. what will I... 3. when I get
4. Will I be?
5. "You won't...6. when you're...
7. I guess I'll...
8. I'm going / I'm going to go...
9. I'm going / I'm going to go...
10. When I see...
11. maybe, I'll understand more...
Exercise 6
A. Edmonton
B.
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. F
6. F
7. T
8. F
9. T
10. F
11. T
Exercise 7
B.
2. I'm , I am
3. will, won't
4. won't, we will
5. won't, they will
6. We're not, we are
7. won't have, will have
1. I think my life occupation in 10 years will be interesting. By 2020, I will already have graduated from law school. By the same time, I will have been working as junior immigration lawyer.
2. I think I'll be living in another country in five years. I will have already moved to China and rented an apartment in Beijing.
3. This evening after dinner, I am going to watch a comedy, then I am going to prepare classes. Finally, I am going to take a shower before I go to bed.
4. On my next vacation, I am going to Ontario, Canada. I will be staying at my grandpa's.
5. As soon as I leave class, I am going to go to the library and study more on future tenses. I am taking the midterm on Monday.
6. My next English class begins at 5.45 p.m. It is a Basic Ten.
7. I'll have finished my studies by ... After that, I will do an internship at a small business.
8. In a year's time, I will have been studying English for ... months / years.

He
has to
attend the meeting tomorrow.
He
must
attend the meeting tomorrow.
He
must not be
late for the meeting.
He
had to
attend the meeting yesterday.
I
must be
careful not to upset him.
They
have to
be in Charlotte before Thursday.
They
have to
study before the exam.
Teachers and government
must
talk to stop the strike.
There
must
be control and supervision to fight corruption.
Use "have got to" for
conversations
informal writing
It is rarely used in the negative. Prefer don't have to.
Use "must not" when something is prohibited. "Must not" means that
it is important

that you don't do something.
You
must not
give me flowers because I'm allergic.
You
must not
smoke. This is a public place.
You
must not
take picture of these old paintings.
You
must not
swim in the "Mar Brava."
Use "don't have to" when something
is not necessary
.
You
don't have to
say to everything.
You
don't have to
give me flowers, but if you like it.
You
don't have to
do your homework...just kidding.
exercise 2
2. had to worry
3. supposed to do
4. were supposed to leave
5. Should we have left
6. don't have to leave
7. should you tip
8. you're supposed to do
9. Should you leave
10. ought to have given
11. could have left
exercise 5
2. I'm taking too...You're only supposed...
3. I figured I'd better
4. I guess I ought to have expected ...
5. I was embarrassed, but I shouldn't have been
6. In China, you shouldn't open...
7. She told me I must go and try it on...
8. Shall I bring you...?
9. ...so I've go to sign off.
Present (questions, negative, affirmative)
Decide with your partner which ones are obligations, prohibitions or options.
1. Joe must work if not, he won't eat.
2. Jude doesn't have to fill up the application.
3. Jean must not trespass that property.
4. You must get a green card if you want to work in the U.S.
5. Hannah must watch out on her sugar level. She is diabetic.
6. Ruth didn't have to call her mom everyday.
7. You must not take pictures in this museum.
o
o
p
p
op
op
o
It would be a good idea if...
It's the right thing to do...
It's the right thing to ...
1.
Should
we start with the class?
2.
Shall
we start with the class?
3. It is cold,
shall
I close the door?
4. You look red, you
ought to
drink some water and put some lotion. Also, you
shouldn't
go outside for a while.
5. For your college application, you
ought to
prepare for the interview and write a couple of essays. You
should not
get nervous at the time of the interview.
Examples
if not, there will be consequences
1. What modals do you use for present and future necessity? Which modal is the one used informally and formally? (Give examples in the affirmative, negative and question).
2. Imagine you are at a museum, state two prohibitions.
3. Imagine you are at the beach, state two prohibitions.
4. You are going on a trip for a long weekend, what things are not necessary, used modals.
Talk with your partner.
1. You are policeman talking with a criminal, use strong advice that implies a warning.
2. You are a parent talking with his naughty child, give strong advice.
3. Your job interview was disaster, what should have you do better? (three past pieces of advice)
4. What did you expect of your ex boy/girlfriend?
5. What do you expect from your best friend?
1. What's the city capital of Peru?
2. What's the city capital of Sierra Leona?
3. What's the capital of Paraguay?
Containers and quantities
1. What's a stative verb? Give examples.
2. Give three examples when you use a stative verb
describing an action.
3. When can you use present perfect to describe
an action in the past?
4. When do you use past perfect? Give 2 examples.
5. What do you use to express routine in the past?
6. What do you use to express routine in the present?
7. What do you use to talk about timetables?
8. When you talk about the future, which clause goes in the present tense and which one goes in the future?
How has your life changed in the past ten years? Has it changed a lot?
What is somethings you should have done differently? (Express regret)
(talk about your personality, preferences and friends)

Write an introductory paragraph and three body paragraphs.

Examples
indefinite and definite articles
specific
non-specific
generic
plural count-nouns
singular count-nouns
non- count nouns
proper nouns
the
the
the
the
the
A / An
A / An
the
An
indefinite
noun can be
non-specific
or
generic
.
Non-specific
nouns:

no particular person, place or thing
first time mentioned
can be plural or singular
1. I do not own
a
car.
2. She would like to go to
a
university that specializes in teaching.
3. I would like to eat
an
apple.
4. He would like to live in
a
large house. The house should have at least three bedrooms and two bathrooms.

examples
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/grammar/articles
Definite nouns

Nouns are definite when the speaker and listener know which
particular
person, place, or thing is being talked about.
1. The
book
that I read last night was great.
2. The
books
assigned for this class are very useful.
3. The
notes
you gave me were very helpful.
4. The
London Bridge
is very old.
5. The
Balta Bridge
is old and beautiful.
examples
We know what you are talking about, at least have some idea.
1. The news on Channel 46 are always bad.

2. Rosa’s hairs are long and blonds and her clothes is very stylish.

3. The adviser gave me the wrong informations. Her advises were incorrect.

4. I bought two cheeses and 3 milks.

5. Henry drank two coffees.

6. Statistics are a difficult class.

7. Hye Lim has a strong faith.

8. The sands on Waikiki Beach are golden.

9. Jim gave his girlfriend two golds for her birthday.

10. The clothing in the new store at the mall are very expensive.
correct these sentences

1. The news on Channel 46 is always bad.

2. Rosa’s hair is long and blond and her clothes are very stylish.

3. The adviser gave me the wrong information. Her advice was incorrect.

4. I bought two pounds of cheese and three quarts of milk.

5. Henry drank two cups of coffee.

6. Statistics is a difficult class.

7. Hye Lim has strong faith [no a].

8. The sand on Waikiki Beach is golden.

9. Jim gave his girlfriend two gold rings for her birthday.

10.The clothing in the new store at the mall is very expensive.
answers
When both speaker and listener know what noun they are describing.
Something unique, comparative adjectives and superlative adjectives, "only, wrong, right, first and last."
examples
After she cam
Present Progressive vs Be going to
(In both case, a plan has already being decided, but what is the difference?
preparation
)
PP suggests that at least two people are aware of the plan,and that some preparation has been done.
I'm having lunch with Marie. (Marie and I have already talked about that appointment.)
I'm leaving tomorrow for Paris. (I've already got my ticket.)
We're having a teacher's meeting at the end of the month. (Every teachers has received a slip with the notice.)
Be going to focuses on the idea or intention. There is no preparation.
I'm going to have lunch with Marie. (I have not invited her yet.)
I am going to leave tomorrow for Paris. (I haven't bought my ticket yet)
We're going to have a teacher's meeting at the end of the month. (Teachers have not been notified.)
Be going to focuses on situation that you cannot control.
The conference is going to start tomorrow.
Lime price is going to increase more.
The last day is going to be on August 28.
PP is used with verbs common with verbs of movement, i.e.
http://www.englishlessonsbrighton.co.uk/21-alternative-verbs-for-movement/
I'm shifting job positions. (I got transferred)
I'm jogging tomorrow morning. (I've set my alarm and prepared my running outfit)
She's moving to Ica.(She got a house there and packed everything.)

writings
Write 3 paragraph about your childhood and future plans.
First paragraph: How well do you remember your childhood? Where and when were you born? Where did you spend your childhood? What is a good memory you have? What is a bad memory you have?
Second paragraph: Are you happy with your life? What do you do? Where do you work and study? What is your daily routine / weekend routine?
Where do you go on vacation?
Third paragraph: What are you going to do in the future? By when will you have finished your studies? What do you think your life occupation will be? When do you think you will get married?
One can hardly forget one’s childhood memories whether pleasant or painful. I can still remember my childhood very much. I was born in a village in the district of Shariatpur where I passed my childhood. Many things happened in my childhood days; but I cannot remember all of them. I can remember the happy days with my parents ... However, I have my bitter experience as well. One day while playing in the field, I fell down and got hurt in my leg. It caused me a lot of trouble, I could not attend my school because of terrible pain for a week. When I remember my childhood, I feel a pulsation of both joy and sorrow in my mind.
Zero Article
It is possible to have nouns without any article.
I eat
rice

everyday.
She drinks
coffee
in the morning.
I need to check several
emails
.
ZERO Article with Plural and Uncountable Nouns
General meaning
cars, people
life, water

Abstract nouns
education, happiness, music
Cars can be dangerous.
We seldom see courage like that.
I could see clouds in the sky.
There was milk on the doorstep.
Examples
ZERO Article with Singular Countable Nouns
Names

People: Mary, Bill, Josef

Places: Jupiter, Russia, Bangkok, Heathrow Airport, Cambridge University, Waterloo Station

Streets: Oxford Street, Wall Street, Picadilly Circus

Languages: English, Russian

Academic subjects: History, Law, Physics

Days, months: Monday, November
I gave it to Mary.
She arrived in Bangkok yesterday.
Do you speak French?
Examples
Games and Sports: football, chess

Meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner

Noun + Number:
platform 3, room 7, page 44

Routine Places:
in bed, at home, to school, to work

Movement or Transport
on foot, by car, by bus, by air

Newspaper Headlines, Notices, User Guides
Plane Crashes On House, Keep Area Clean, Insert battery
ZERO Article with the following categories
He is good at tennis.
People will travel to Mars soon.
He is in room 45.
Please turn to page 67.
She's in bed.
Are you at home?
They took her to hospital.
I'm leaving town tomorrow by car.
I go to school by bus.
We usually meet on Monday.
November is quite cold.
Examples
https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/determiners-zero-article.htm
There are exceptions on GRN3
Full transcript