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Transcript of Sarah Winnemucca
Winnemucca Hopkins Then & Now Setting the Stage Relationships Sarah Winnemucca The Bannock War 1878 Overview Began because two white men raped a Bannock woman and her relatives shot and killed the rapist
The Army took away the Bannock's guns and horses, and sent them to live on a reservation
Winnemuca returns in an attempt to help
learned that a great Indian war was underway and the Bannocks wanted to kill Winnemuca
She went in anyhow to save her father, brother, and people Winnemucca's Marriages Touring the Country and Writing her Book “Yes, I went for the government when the officers could not get an Indian man or a white man to go for love or money. I, only an Indian woman, went and saved my father and his people.” – 164 Role of a Woman Government Restrictions Sarah went and saved her people with another woman- Mattie- and the men in her tribe allowed it. Do you think white woman would have been allowed to go and fight for her people, or do you think Sarah was given this freedom because of her Native American culture? 1851- The government set up reservations for tribes to move onto reservations in the West, claiming that this was for the protection of the Natives from the whites moving West.
1871- The government ruled that Native American tribes would no longer be recognized as independent nations, giving the US control of their lands.
"I can tell you how few of the Government supplies reach the Indians; how one little blanket was provided to shelter a family of six from the cold; how three blankets were supposed to be enough for fifteen Indians, when each of them should by right have had one; how, indeed they often have to buy the very supplies that the Government has promised to give them in exchange for their land. I have asked the agents why they did these wrong things. They have told me it was necessary for them to do so in order to get money enough to send to the Great Father at Washington to keep their position. I assure you that there is an Indian ring; that it is a corrupt ring, and that it has its head and shoulders in the treasury at Washington"(Sorisio). Legacy Life Among the Piutes:
Their Wrongs and Claims “It is of no use to be afraid; we have come to see them and see them we must, and if they kill us we have to die and that is all about it, and now we must have something to eat. George, you go and look out while John and I make some coffee, and when it is ready we will call you. “ (156) Performativity? This is Sarah's reaction to the war. From what we know of Sarah so far, do you think she actually said something like this after finding out that a whole tribe of men want nothing better than to see her dead? Also, why might she choose to move from such a bold statement about her life to saying that they should go begin making coffee and eat? Statue in
Washington D.C. Sarah Winnemucca
Elementary School Published Book True Native American Voice Do you think Winnemucca had an impact on American's and their opinion of Natives? Would she be satisfied with the impact that she had? Due to her frequent travels between her home and the places she visited to promote her teachings, activist ideas and her book, her authenticity as a Piute has often been questioned.
"Sarah's position on assimilation, perhaps more than any other single factor, has led scholars, and to a certain degree her own people, to diminish her
contributions to Native American scholarship"(McClure 29). Wong's Theory Indian Appropriations Acts The Story Behind the Story Lieutenant Edward Bartlett Lewis H. Hopkins Inspiration Joseph Setwalker Performativity: "There is no essential original, coherent autobiographical self before the moment of self-narrating. Nor is the autobiographical self expressive in the sense that it is the manifestation of an interiority that is somehow ontologically whole, seamless, or "true." Smith 108 How did Winnemucca use performativity to her advantage?
What do you think her people thought of this?
Do you find her using performativity in her actual memoir? "The Native American writer who appropriates mediums of the dominant culture-autobiography and English-must likewise inherit the complex role of a translator of cultures: Native American autobiographies are the essence of translating cultures" (McClure 32).
Winnemucca's knowledge of the English language allows her to be the catalyst between the Piutes and the government oppressing them. How has her communication ability affected her relationships with her people? Her book success? Her activism? Her legacy? Cross Cultural Connections Princess Sarah "The fire-flash in her eyes and the dramatic action of her race invest the simple language she uses with native eloquence which carries a certain weight with the most cautious reader"
San Fransisco Newspaper The only marriage she speaks of in her memoir- but very briefly.
"After my marriage to Mr. Hopkins I visited my people once more at Pyramid Lake Reservation, and they urged me again to come to the East and talk for them, and so I have come."
Hopkins dies and Winnemucca remains widowed for the remainder of her life Married in 1871
marriage ended in 1876 when Bartlett and Winnemucca divorced Married in 1878
Not much is known about their marriage, but it was short lived From your knowledge of the Piute culture and American society in the 19th century, how did the Piutes and Whites most likely react to Winnemucca's three marriages to white men- two of which ended in divorce? Did Winnemucca not include her marriages in her memoir because they were irrelevant to her writing goal, or because they would reflect poorly on her? 1871 1878 1881 Theory Mattie The Piutes Family While Sarah does have a biological family, she explains that everyone in her tribe is considered her family “I’ve only a minute to spare. I’m so tired; I shall soon be happy. Now, son, I hope you will live to see as much as I have and to know as much as I do. And if you live as I have you will someday come to me. Do your duty as I have done to your people and to your white brothers.” How did Winnemucca's family influence her and her decision to help her people? Mattie is Lee's wife (Sarah's brother).
Mattie and Sarah are the only two women who travel to help their people.
Why are Sarah and Mattie such a successful pair? Works Cited We hope you now know a thing or two more about Sarah Thocmetony Winnemucca Hopkins. Please answer the question on the piece of paper we are now handing out and be prepared to share your response with the rest of the class First-Person Plural: Subjectivity and Community
in Native American Women's Autobiography "When a Native woman writes or speaks in the first-person singular, who else is crowded in that "I"? Who are her relations? And is that speaking/writing subject a product of her Native culture(s) (as well as of the larger U.S. culture) or an invented figure of the female indigene commodofied by the dominant culture?"
Wong 168 Wong Captain Truckee
Mattie How does the quote relate to the identity of Sarah Winnemucca? P. 71 Captain Truckee Does Sarah represent her people accurately? Does this include always representing them positively? "We are taught to love everybody. We don't need to be taught to love our fathers and mothers. We love them without being told to." 45 Literacy How did Sarah's ability to read affect her communications with the “white man”? Do you think she would have been able to achieve all that she has if she had been unable to read and write? Canfield, Gae W. Sarah Winnemucca of the Northern Pauites. Norman:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.
Cohan Scherer, Joanna. "The Public Faces of Sarah Winnemucca." Cultural
Anthropology. 3.2 (1988): n. page. Print.
McClure, Andrew S. "Sarah Winnemucca [Post]Indian Princess and Voice of the
Paiutes." Oxford University Press. 24.2 (1999): Print.
Scordato, Ellen. Sarah Winnemucca: Northern Paiute Writer and Diplomat. New
York: Chelsea House, 1992.
Smith, Sidonie. “Performativity, Autobiographical Practice, Resistance.”
Women, Autobiography, Theory: A Reader. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1998. 108-115.
Sneider, Leah. "Gender, Literacy, and Sovereignty in Winnemucca's Life among
the Piutes."American Indian Quarterly 36.3 (2012): 257-87.
Sorisio, Carolyn. "Playing the Indian Princess? Sarah Winnemucca's Newspaper
Career and Performance of American Indian Identities." Studies in American Indian Literatures . (2011): Print.
Wong, Hertha D. “First Person Plural: Subjectivity and Community in Native
American Women’s Autobiography.” Women, Autobiography, Theory: A Reader. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1998. 168-178.
Zanjani, Sally. Sarah Winnemucca. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska
http://www.epa.gov/region9/air/maps/nv_tribe.html By claiming that Mattie and she were the only ones that would go to save the Piutes, is she "speaking for her people" or attempting to glorify herself? Whites “This is the way my people teach their children. It was handed down from father to son for many generations. I never in my life saw our children rude as I have seen white children and grown people in the streets.” 51 "My white brothers, – my long-looked for white brothers have come at last!" 5 "My people talked fearfully that winter about those they called our white brothers. My people said they had something like awful thunder and lightning, and with that they killed everything that came in their way." 12 Whites deprive Piutes of food, clothing, cattle, and horses and many begin to carelessly kill the Piute people. Criticisms and Hardships Winnemucca's media coverage was both helpful to her success and hurtful in her reputation. Although her name was circulated in mainstream news, she was criticized for being "the army's tool". One newspaper found her work so offensive that "the paper's editor also attempted to stop the publication of Life among the Piutes"(Sorisio). After all of the trials and tribulations Winnemucca faced, the best way to maintain her culture while sharing her battles with the outside world was to record her memories of the moments that shaped her life. Had she not written this book, Sarah's voice would have been lost along with a deeper understanding of the Piutes' cultural history. Map of Piute Territory and Surrounding Lands -Assumes Princess identity to promote book and awareness of culture
-Allows reasoning for
-Pocahontas image "If Winnemucca "faked"
her wardrobe, then she
left the manifest manners of
authenticity intact. If she simulated it,
she deployed irony to destabilize her
audience's sense of what constituted
a "real" Indian princess"(Sorisio). Sarah often claims to have been the only one who would save her people Her people lose trust in her when the promises that the whites make to them are not kept