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sociology & translation
Transcript of sociology & translation
Venuti (1996) argues that this subjectivity is constituted by cultural and social determinations that are diverse and even conflicting; hence analyzing the social implications of translation help us to identify the translator and the translation researcher as a constructing and constructed subject in society.
It means that we need to conceptualize a methodological framework, which has been repeatedly undertaken in the last few years. Interdisciplinary, or:
translation between culture and society
Translation studies seems particularly inclined towards the shift of paradigms. This results partly from the fact that its subject is by nature located in the contact zones “between cultures”, and is therefore exposed to different constellations of contextualization and structures of communication. Klaus Kaindl argues that the discipline of translation studies must reconsider its current practice of instrumentalising the research methods of other disciplines, and instead encourage cooperation on a reciprocal basis (Kaindl, 2004, p. 71).
The various results of such a move would include the consideration of cultural studies, linguistics, literary studies, historiography, philosophy and sociology
within translation studies. From this perspective, translation is a concept that opposes the view of culture as an agency preserving static views of tradition and identity, and instead highlights the dynamic transformations resulting from continual confrontations of cultural formations. Introduction With the growing interest in sociological studies of translation, scholars have begun to talk about the emergence of ‘a sociology of translation’ which would focus on the sociology of agents, of the translation process and of the cultural product of translation (Wolf, 2007). Sociology &Translation By: Azadeh Eriss Interdisciplinary:
Understood as a differentiated, multidimensional epistemological concept which according to Roland Brtehes, “consists in creating a new object which does not belong to anybody” (Barthes, 1984, p. 100)
It is an expression of the differences that exist between scientific disciplines with regard to their structural characteristics. We are going to introduce a research area which so far has been touched upon only unsystematically and which, under the label of a “sociology of translation”, deals with the issues that arise when viewing translation and interpreting as social practice as well as symbolically transferred interaction.
As will be shown, the implications of these interactions are being analyzed in an increasingly sophisticated range of issues and methodological refinements. The process of translation seems, to different degrees, to be conditioned by two levels: 1) The first level “cultural”, a structural one, encompasses influential factors such as power, dominance, national interests, religion or economics.
2)And the second level the “social” which concerns the agents involved in the translation process, who continuously internalize the aforementioned structures and act in correspondence with their culturally connotated value systems and ideologies. There is a danger of dichotomizing these two levels. Anthony Pym (2006) has recently claimed that [w]e talk, too readily, about ‘sociocultural’ or ‘social and cultural’ approaches, contexts, factors, whatever. […] No doubt the ‘social’ is also the ‘cultural’(p. 14). Certainly, society cannot be adequately described without culture nor culture without society. Once it becomes obvious that all the elements contributing to the constitution of society are conditioned by specific cultural abilities of language and symbolization, the concepts of “society” and “culture” are both revealed as constructions: culture “creates social structures and is shaped by existing ones” (Neidhardt, 1986, p. 15). In these construction processes, translation undoubtedly plays a major role. Especially in the translational analysis of recent world-wide developments, such as migration or globalization, where cultural, social and societal problems in the narrower sense are at stake. It becomes clear on the one hand that there is no benefit in encouraging the elaboration of separate analytical tools (stemming, among other sources, from sociology and cultural studies). And, on the other, that some of the methodologies developed in the wake of the “cultural turn” seem to no longer suffice for a thorough analysis of the contribution of translation within these multifaceted processes. An emphasis on the relationship between culture and society would help to avoid dichotomization and allow us to transcend traditional deterministic views. “Translation as a social practice” Although it has been recognized that the translation process is socially conditioned and that “the viability of a translation is established by its relationship to the cultural and social conditions under which it is produced and read” (Venuti, 1995, p. 18). The methodological framing of a sociology of translation: 1)Sociology of agent
2)Sociology of the translation process
3)Sociology of the cultural product Sociology of agents: Theories that bring social action to the fore conceive of social life from the perspective of individually acting persons who are involved in social processes. In such a context, agents participating in the translation procedure are highlighted from various aspects. _Gender-specific issues in the area of sociological frameworks are dealt with in detail by Wolf (2006) in her study on women translators working in German-speaking countries for women publishers or women’s book series. Sociology of the translation process: Descriptive approaches offer particularly fertile ground for the development of a “sociology of the translation process”.
_ Revealing the connections of historical and cultural factors with systemic approaches. Robyns views both source and target texts as constructions embedded in social discourses, and develops a translation model with three interactive aspects (Robyns, 1992). _Translation viewed as a set of discourses which is, a study on theater translation, pursues the idea that literature is per se a discursive act and a representation of other discourses (Brisset, 1990). _ Translation as a socially driven process is central to Klaus Kaindl’s study on the introduction of comics into the literary field of German-speaking countries (Kaindle, 2004). Sociology of the cultural product The works pertinent to this section discuss translation – more or less explicitly – by highlighting its contribution to the construction of social identity, image, social roles, or ideology. A sociological theory of translation is seen as an essential device for the international transfer of knowledge. The conceptualization of a translation market that is hierarchically structured according to the weight of the various languages, a view substantiated by data on translated works in the international market, is complemented by illustrations of the forces operating on this market and contributing to the promotion, prevention and manipulation of translations. Sociologist whose work could form the basis of a theoretical frame work for a sociology of translation are: -Pierre Bourdieu
- Niklas Luhmann. The construction of a “sociology of translation studies” In translation studies, recent works have asserted the necessity of reflecting on the discipline’s mapping from a historical and institutional perspective. They discuss both the emergence of various sub-fields and their position in the scientific community, foregrounding the social conditions that underlie the relation of translation studies to other disciplines. Similarly, Yves Gambier is concerned with questions regarding the institutionalisation of translation studies. He analyses the sociological dynamics contributing to the constitution and practice of the discipline and particularly deplores the lack of a historiography of translation studies that would take account of the scholars’ representation in the field and investigate the archaeology of the discourses which have made up the discipline during its constitution process (Gambier, 1999). To sum up, it seems that the self-reflexive inspection of the social moves molding the history of science has also been taking groundly to the shape of the discipline and of its in translation studies, thus contributing not on objects “from within”, but also of the discourses on the field. One must therefore agree with Raymond Aron when he says that “science is inseparable from the republic. Potential Topics for Research Sociology of translation in Iranian
Research Literature/Iranian Context: References: Note: Sociological approaches, in contrast, can shed light on the logics which determine the circulation of symbolic goods. Conclusion: The social function and the socio communicative value of a translation can best be located within the contact zone where the translated text and the various socially driven agencies meet.
-Three Faces of Dissent: Cognitive, Expressive and Traditional Discourses in Contemporary Iran (Katuzian & Shahidi, 2007).
-Agency in the translation ansd production of novels from English in modern Iran (Haddadian Moghaddam, 2007).
-Individual and institutional agency in three publishing houses during the Pahlavi perio (Haddadian Moghaddam, 2007). In the humanities, interdisciplinary projects are an especially important contribution to the rise and subsequent establishment of “turns”, which question both existing paradigms and allegedly definitive certainties, and additionally offer innovative potential for productive new research areas and methodologies. As was shown by what has been labeled the “cultural turn” (Bassnett & Lefevere, 1990) Barthes, R. (1984). le bruissement de la langue. Paris: Seuil.
Bassnett, S., & Lefevere, A. (1990). History and culture. London and New York, 1-13.
Brisset, A. (1990). Sociocritique de la traduction. Motreal.
Haddadian Moghaddam, E. (2007). Agency in the translation and production of novels from English in modern Iran.
Haddadian Moghaddam, E. (2007). Individual and institutional agency in three publishing houses during the Pahlavi perio.
Kaindl, K. (2004). Ubersetzungswissenschaft im interdisziplinare. Stauffenburg
Katuzian, H. & Shahidi, H. (2007). Three Faces of Dissent: Cognitive, Expressive and Traditional Discourses in Contemporary Iran.
Pym, A. (2006). On the social and cultural in translation studies. Amsterdam and Phladelphia.
Robyns, C. (1992). Towards a sociosemiotics of translation, 1-25.
Venuti, L. (1995). The translator's invisibility. London and New York, Routledge.
Venuti, L. (1996). Translation as a social practice, 195-213.
Wolf, M. (2006). The female state of the art.Amsterdam and Philadelphia, John Benjamins, 129-141.
Wolf, M. & Fukari, A. (2007). Constructing a sociology of translation. John Benjamins. - Woman state in translation field in Iran.
-Scandals of translation in Iran in order to improve it.
- who was the first female translator in Iran.
-The stake of translation in literary fields in Iran.
-Norms and determinations of translation: A theoretical framework in Iran.
-The role of "power" in translation history in Iran.
-We can use from "interdisciplinary" concept in translation studies, and it's relation with other science.
-Problems of translation marketing in Iran.
-Problems arising from interdisciplinary thinking about translation in Iran.
-The role of publishers in improvements of translation studies in Iran