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The ancient regime

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by

Jorge Rodriguez

on 4 October 2015

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Transcript of The ancient regime

The ancient regime
Economy
Society
Politics
International relations
Culture
Art
Politics & policy:

Absolutism

versus

Parliamentarianism
British Revolutions
First: Execution of Charles I (1649)

Second (
Glorious
): James II
deposed (1688);
Mary accepts the
Bill of Rights (1689)
Economy
Demography
Agriculture: property structure
Industry: guilds
Trade
Economic theory: mercantilism
Early capitalism?
International relations
The balance of powers:

-No hegemonic power
-Several competing States
The ancient regime
Demography
Pre-industrial stage:
-high birth rates
-high death rates (diseases, not developed medical knowledge & public health)
= slow demographic growth
Agriculture
a) The most important sector of the economy

b) BUT it is not a basis for economic growth because:
-privileged rights (seigneurial rights + tithe)
-legal obstacles to free market (
mayorazgo, manos muertas
)
= no investments + technology

Trade
a) Main factor for an early capitalist society

b) English & Dutch, builders of international networks

c) Consequences:
-improvement of manufacture sector
-accumulation of capital


The question of
early capitalism
-Capitalism: accumulation of capital to invest + for profit (Italy, Late Middle Ages)

-Free market: private parties make available goods and services for profit

+ prices determined by supply/demand

=English & Dutch developed early modern capitalism (trade)
Mercantilism
-State goal: accumulation of gold and silver; if there are no mines, through trade

-Balance of trade must be positive: imports must be restricted; exports encouraged

-State intervention to promote manufactures & foreign trade (Companies)
Physiocrats
Agriculture is the basis of wealth
Industry:
guilds
-Goal: protection of market
-Local monopoles of production & labor
-Regulated prices & salaries
-Fixed nº of workers & technical requirements

=No possibility for capitalist accumulation

BUT:
The free market penetrated the guild system: protoindustrialisation
Estates society
-Privileged: clergy
aristocracy

-Not privileged: fiscal pressure
vector of change: bourgeoisie
Absolutism
-Feature of Modern Monarchies (15th c.)
limitation of aristocratic power
permanent royal army
bureaucracy to collect taxes

-Model (17-18th c. : Louis XIV,
roi soleil
l´état, c'est moi
Protoindustrialisation
-Domestic work
-Additional incomes to peasants
-Raw materials & payments from a merchant
-Manufactures sold in distant markets

= profits
The systematisation of capitalism: A. Smith
Culture: the Enlightenment
Political hybrid:
Enlightened despotism
-Prosperity for the people: economic liberalisation
BUT
-Political absolutism

The Seven Years' War
-European and world conflict

-France v. Britain + Spain, Austria, Prussia

=British victory, British naval hegemony

-Treaty of Paris 1763: France lost colonies

Nicholas II of Russia




Franz Joseph of Austria

-Portrait
1910

Hermitage – Winter Palace
St. Petersburg

Royal Palace
Madrid







Palace
of
Versailles

Schönbrunn Palace
Vienna

Palace of
Catherine the Great

Peterhof
Summer Palace

Ferdinand VII
of Spain
-Portrait

Francisco de Goya
(1814)




Louis XVI
of France
- Portrait
Antoine-François Callet (1786)

-Cultural, philosophical and intellectual movement
-Developed during the 17th (Britain) and 18th (European Continent) centuries, although with precedents (Greece, Renaissance)
-Goal: reason/logic as an instrument to understand the world AND
to transform it: concept of unlimited progress
-Instrument: new scientific methods (empirical observation + experimentation): Science of Man
-Obstacles: absolutism, estates society,
religion
Enlightenment in Britain
-Economy: A. Smith

-Politics: John Locke
Enlightenment in France
-Voltaire
-Montesquieu:
L'esprit des lois
Division of powers
-Rousseau:
Le contrat social
Popular sovereignty

-Expansion of Enlightened ideas:
L'Encyclopédie
, Diderot, D'Alembert
François-Marie Arouet,
Voltaire
Charles Louis de Secondat,
baron de Montesquieu
Full transcript