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british literature

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Simonica Forrest

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of british literature

2000 2013 1900 D.H. Lawrence:
David Herbert Lawrence was born on September 11, 1885 & lived until March 2, 1930. During his lifetime he acquired the job as a teacher at Davidson Road School. This influenced his passion for writing. Though Lawrence did not become famous until after his death, his novel "The Rainbow", written in 1915 was a fairly popular book which told the story of his views about familial relationships. The novel relates the story of the generations of an English family--The Brangwens. 1915 James Joyce:
James Joyce was born on February 2,1882 in Dublin, Ireland. He published the novel, Ulysses, in 1922 and shortly after that he became a literary celebrity. Ulysses focuses on a day in the life ofMr. Leopold Bloom, a middle aged Jewish man who lives in Ireland. Joyce's stream-of-consciousness within this novel allows the reader tofollow the movement of his thoughts & to hear his needs & desires as well as his joy & despair. James Joyce died in 1941. Scott Fitzgerland:
Scott Fitzgerland was born on September24, 1896 in St. Paul Minnesota. One of his famous works was The Great Gatsby, which was written in 1925. It told the story of a man named Gatsby who was at first a poor man, this caused him the girl of his dream. Gatsby later takes a transition in the story to becoming fairly wealthy and is faced with many overlapping and troublesome obstacles to reach his dream girl. Gatsby ends up murdered at the end of the storyline. Fitzgerland's life came to an end in 1940. 1925 Virginia Woolf:
Virginia Woolf was a famous writer who was born on January 25, 1882 to a privileged English household. She was a free form styled writer who inspired her peers and ended up earning herself much praise. She was known for her mood swings and deep depression. Woolf committed suicide in 1941, she was 59 years of age. During her lifetime she created a landmark novel of high modernism with the story, To The Lighthouse, which was published in 1927. Ian Fleming:
Ian Fleming was born in 1908 on May 28th. He created the famous spy character James Bond. James Bond was a character who fulfilled many adventures with over 12 novels & 9 short stories. Each story was packed with violence, escapes, espionage, gadgets, & women. His stories startedin the 1950s and became international bestsellers. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy told the world that the Bond novels were one of his favorite books. Ian Fleming died in August of 1964 due to his second heart attack. 1950s INVENTORS
CONTRIBUTORS Tim Berners-Lee Contribution to Society
"Father of the World Wide Web"
Built his own first ever computer while attending Oxford
Developed the computer program, ENQUIRE
Also developed concept of URL and HTTP for the computer
Forever changed the way people communicate, conduct business, and connect with the world Basic Information
Born in London (1955)
Graduated from Oxford University with a degree in Physics ( 1976)
Offspring of two mathematicians Christopher Cockerell Born on 4 June 1910 in Wayside Cavendish Avenue,Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Invented the hovercraft Saunders-Roe Nautical One (SR-N1) in 1956.
Studied a Cambridge-educated English engineer.

The hovercraft since then has been modified to more up to date equipment and it has proved to contribute to British society till this day. The hovercraft has been used for:
human transport
oil crew boats
travel over mud and ice in challenging climates
national coastguards, military personnel and fishery patrols Frank Whittle Born in the City of Coventry on 1st June 1907
Accepted into the Royal Air Force after his third attempt to join at the age of 16 in September 1923
In 1929 while attending Central Flying School he perceived the idea of using the Gas Turbine to power jet thrust but the Air Ministry disregarded his idea as foolish
By April 1941 he had created an engine that was ready for flight testing
The first flight of an allied Turbo-jet, the Gloster E28/39, was made on 15th May 1941 at Cranwell Whittle opened the door way for supersonic air travel, not just for the military but also for civilian aircraft. Isaac Newton Isaac Newton a physicist and mathematician is mainly known in chemistry. Without his three laws some of the inventions today’s inventions wouldn’t be possible.
Lived from 1643-1727
Newton’s laws: 1st Law: An object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force and an object in uniform motion tends to remain in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
2nd Law: An applied force on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum.
3rd Law: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction (listverse.com). These motions are applied to many inventions around the world.
This has impacted the twenty and twenty-first century by providing new inventors with a basis to create and invention so they can apply his laws to make a specific invention work. Alexander Graham Bell In 1875, Alexander Graham Bell wanted to come up with an invention to transmit sound.
Lived from 1847-1869
He worked a whole year and left Boston University to patent his invention the very first telephone in 1876. From 1876 tell present, telephones have come from sting telephones and transmitters to the high tech smart phones we use now.
Cell phones are used every day by anyone who can afford one. Phones have largely fluctuated in the way the work to increase technology in the twenty and twenty-first century. Percy Shaw Percy Shaw was born in Halifax in the West Riding of Yorkshire
Educated at Boothtown Board School and started working in a cloth mill when he was 13 years of age
Most famously known for inventing road studs or “cat’s eyes”, for lighting the way along the roads in the dark
He came up with the idea of inventing road studs when one night he was driving home and he saw his car headlights reflected in a cat’s eyes
In 1934 he patented his invention based on Richard Hollins Murray reflected lens patent in 1927 The Enlightenment The true answer behind the Enlightenment is that it strengthened the ties between colonial and British elites (Boyer). Referring back to Isaac Newton he was one of the greatest sources of the Enlightenment. His laws of gravitation and motion impacted Europeans to search for types of medicine, laws to follow, psychology, and a government (Boyer). Newton inspiring this people should that British society was showing improvements. When the industrial and agricultural revolutions sweep across Britain it led to a major increase in contributors and inventors of British society. Without the industrial and agricultural revolutions, we would not have some of the luxuries we have today (hyperhistory.net). Popular Culture
and Icons Benjamin Brittin
November 22, 1913 – December 4, 1976
One of Britain’s most memorable composers was Benjamin Britten. Some of his popular works include the War Requiem, Sinfonietta, and Our Hunting Fathers. 1900's
•The national debt £650m in 1914 to £7.4 billion in 1919
•Steam-powered engine was used
•Animal power was used to move heavy stuff around
•Crime rate stayed constant
•Fashion came to a stop because of war
Women were allowed to vote of household 1920's
• Crime rate increased 5%
• Baby boom
• Premarital sex and unmarried sex were considered accepted
• Alcohol consumption increased 1930's
• Over 2 million people unemployed
• ALL women over 21 could vote
• Night clubs increased 1950's
• Denim jeans-LEVI's
• Broadcasting TV
• Car ownership grew 251% 1960's
• "lifestyle" became a way of life
• Elvis came apart of the Britain music
• Mass radio and TV
• Schools began to indicate "Class" 1970's
•Transition between technology and business
•64% of homes had a washing machine
•91% of families has television
•Riding on airlines became cheaper Cultural Capital
With any case of cultural differences people instantly think of situations regarding ethnicities. Cultural Capital is defined as “the non-fictional social assets, promotes social mobility”. In other words Cultural Capital is social diversity, which could take place anywhere in the world especially in the United Kingdom. Back in the late eighteenth ‘til the mid-twentieth century Britain split up into three social classes, the “working”, “middle” and “upper”, better known as the rich class. All three social classes aren’t really any surprise to us today because we live the same way whether we see it or not. The British however took their riches to a new level. By splitting up the classes you could easily see the differences amongst each group. Cultural Capital as a whole Early Education 1951 Roy Petley
•Roy Petley, born in 1951 in Lincolnshire, a contemporary painter and great oil impressionist whose art incorporated the different light and shadow techniques. En Plain Air is his most known piece. 1941 Robert Oscar Lenkiewicz
•Robert Oscar Lenkiewicz, born in 1941 in London, was an artist whose artwork was based on themes of secret communities and social issues. Some of his work includes Vagrancy, Love and Romance, and Suicide. 1934 David Hockney
•David Hockney, born in Bradford, Yorkshire
in 1934 is an English artist.
Most of his work includes
reference to pop culture and includes
humor. He has also worked as a graphic
artist and photographer. 1909 Francis Bacon
•Francis Bacon, born in 1909 in Dublin, was a Irish born British painter most well known for his contemporary paintings. His art is renowned for its depiction of intense emotion such as terror, brutality, and power which also included inspiration from surrealism. Among Bacon’s most famous artworks include his self portrait, “Head”, as well as Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion. Education in the UK is quite different from the schooling that we’re used to. Back in the early twentieth century schooling after traditional grade school wasn’t available to kids once they graduated unless they had money to pay for it. Elementary school was available to children from the age 5-13, after that they were sent out to work in the real world. In the near end of the twentieth century the rules began to stretch a bit to give students as well as their parents a fair chance. Students were tested at the age of eleven to earn a spot in Grammar school. The specific test they took focused mainly on English and Arithmetic, back then any subjects beyond the two were irrelevant. Colleges Tuition ( Undergraduate) Tuition (Postgraduate)
1. University of Oxford: 12,500-15,000 US$ (Local)
Over 20,000 US$ (international) 7,500-10,000 US$ (Local)
Over 20,000 US$ (international)
2. University of Cambridge: 12,500-15,000 US$ (Local)
Over 20,000 US$ (international) 7,500-10,000 US$ (Local)
15,000-17,500 US$ (international)
3. University of Edinburgh: 2,500-5,000 US$ (Local)
15,000-17,000 US$ (international) 15,000-17,500 US$ (Local)
15,000-17,500 US$ (international)
4. University College: London 2,500-5,000 US$ (Local)
17,500-20,000 US$ (International) 5,000-7,500 US$ (Local)
17,500-20,000 US$ (international)
5. Imperial College London: 2,500-5,000 US$ (Local)
Over 20,000 US$ (international) 5,000-7,500 US$ (Local)
Over 20,000 US$ (international) Top 5 Colleges in England • Upper class
 People who have inherited wealth
 Consists of some of the oldest families in Britain
 Aristocrats
• Middle class
 Makes up the majority of the population
 Includes industrialists, professionals, and business people
• Lower class
 Mine, agricultural, and factory workers British Social Classes Hats showed a great deal about women back in the 20th century because of its symbolic connection to wealth. Gloves are also a well-respected symbol because it shows how a woman is conscientious about who touched their hands. Back in the 20th century the poor carried disease and hygiene was a crucial part of society. Clothing in the 20’s During WW2 fashion was mildly important because of the urgency to produce weapons for their country and British allies to use.
Smoking was a popular thing to do back in this era also. Cigarette holders showed that you were a lady of importance but you also liked to indulge in smoking.
Eyeglasses are another piece of cultural capital that is still used today. One type of eyeglasses that was popular in the 1920’s was the monocle. The reason that this shows wealth is because each monocle crafted is uniquely carved to fit that individual's optic foramen.
Men during WW2 mostly wore suits and polished shoes. The women wore dresses without nylons because their country was in dire need of these types of materials. Instead they would take eyeliner and draw a line down the lateral aspect of their leg to make it appear as though they did have on nylons. The reason for the lines being drawn down the side of their legs is because it was a symbol of being classy and showing sex appeal also. (1939-1945) In the UK pea coats were famous for women as well as men. Pea coats are comfortable and they came in a wide array of colors. These coats also were a sign of wealth mostly because they were made out of woven wool and other expensive materials. Also a lot of people in London owned one or two……or a lot.
Ankle socks and thick high heels were another trend that people were infatuated with during that time. The reason that they were so popular is because they are short, comfortable, and cute. Plus the majority of teenage girls wore them. 1960’s The decades 70-80’s were swarmed by the Vans and Adidas era. The Vans and Adidas era was mostly about street style and affordability.
Shades around this time were believed to be a superior fad also. Mostly because of the beetles. Also around this time women were wearing their hair in up and down-dos. The reason for that is there was no threat pertaining to their country, plus Great Britain is an island so the vibe in the UK was more relaxed because it isn’t land-locked. Which also means that conflict can be prevented easier than a country with all of its borders touching other countries. 1970-80’s From the 90’s to present day Nike, Polo, Nautica, and Levis rule the scene. These labels weren’t extremely famous in the 90’s. They started picking up around the 2000’s because of their exotic appearance. In the 90’s Tommy Hilfiger was a massive brand because of the wide range of options you had as far as affordability. 90’s-now works cited 24 X 7." J. K. Rowling â FactMonster.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2013.
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"Why the Man Who Invented the Web Isn't Rich." The Atlantic. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2013.
"Winston Churchill Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2013. Religion Islam No Religion Christianity •King Henry the VIII, a devoted Catholic, wanted to divorce his wife because she produced two daughters when he wanted a son, but the catholic religion refused to fulfill his wishes because they didn't allow divorce.
•King Henry didn’t quite agree with this decision so he decided to create his own church, The Anglican Church, which is also known as the Church of England.
•This was the beginning of the sub religion known as Protestant. •After years of religious practice and faith, the British discovered Islam.
•The practice of Islam has spread greatly in the 21st century in the UK making them the second largest religious group in the United Kingdom.
•There are over 2 million Muslims in Britain's population today.
•The Islamic belief in the United Kingdom has increased from about 3 percent to 4.8 percent in just a matter of ten years. •Scientology addresses the spirit and is believed that Man is far more than a product of his environment.
•Scientology is not a dogmatic religion in which one is asked to accept anything on faith alone.
•The ultimate goal of Scientology is the true spiritual enlightenment and freedom for all.
•Scientology is something that one does not believe in a higher power.
•This group that claims to have no religion has nearly doubled over the last decade.
•The percentages who call themselves Christians has dropped to 59%, down from 72%, 10 years ago in the UK
•With this said, regular church attendance of Christians is also declining slowly, but surely. Statistics Statistics J.K Rowling July 31, 1965- present
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (Series)
Series Published 1998-2007
With the magic incorporated into Harry Potter and the Half-Blooded Prince, Rowling won ‘Book of the Year’ with a Lifetime Achievement Award in 2008. Born Joanne Rowling, the use of her pen name kicked in writing Harry Potter. She believed it would distract male readers knowing the book was written by a woman. After sending the first manuscript of Harry Potter, she was encouraged to get a day-to-day job because there was no hope selling children’s books. 2001 Jonathan Franzen The Corrections August 17, 1959 - present Published 2001 Known for his National Book Award, conceited wit and his frequent appearances in The New Yorker, Franzen has become a well known author of the 21st century. Graduating from Swarthmore College & later working at Harvard, Jonathan Franzen is considered one of the "Best Young American Novelist" The Hunger Games
Published 2008 August 10th, 1962 Suzanne Collins After years of putting an interesting twist on childrens shows such as Little Bear and Oswaldo, writer Suzanne Collins turned into an author overnight. Making The Hunger Games and international best seller Collins hooked readers by connecting to teens living in rural areas 2008 Stephenie Meyer
December 24, 1973- Present
Twilight Published 2005 2005 As a stay-at-home mother of 3 kids, Meyer came up with the idea for Twilight during a swim lesson. She is a graduate of Brigham Young University, obtaining a bachelor's degree in English She lives with her husband and 3 sons in Arizona James Patterson March 22, 1947 Young British Artists
the YBA are a group of British artists who were active in London from the 1980s to the late 1990s. The earliest core members of the group were Damien Hirst, Michael Craig-Martin, Richard Wentworth and others. POLITICS/FAMOUS LEADERS England's government is called a Parliamentary Monarchy and a Constitutional Monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is currently the monarch of England and is head of state. She is mostly a figurehead. England's parliament is consisted of two houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party in parliament. He presides over the cabinet and selects its members. He is elected by the House of Commons. The cabinet does specific tasks as needed. The House of Commons are in charge of passing laws. The House of Lords introduce new bills and make amendments to bills passed by the House of Commons. Members of the House of Commons and the House of Lords are elected for 5 year terms before being re-elected. Famous British Leaders and People Margaret Thatcher
Sir Winston Churchill
Queen Victoria
Queen Elizabeth II
Charles Darwin
Sir Alexander Fleming Margaret Thatcher Husband- Denis Thatcher Date of Birth- October of 1925 Place of birth- Grantham, England Why is she important- she was the first British Prime minister for three straight terms, starting in 1979- 1990, she also helped shift the steady decline in the areas of British life: British politics, reviving the economy, reforming outdated institutions, and reinvigorating the nation's foreign policy. Sir Winston Churchill Born on November 30, 1874. Father was Randolph Churchill, a British Statesman, and his mother was Jeannie Jerome, an independent-minded New York socialite. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Churchill helped lead a successful Allied strategy with Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin during WWII to defeat the Axis powers. He died on January 24, 1965. Queen Victoria Born: May 24, 1819 Died: January 22, 1901 Reign: 1837-1901 (a.k.a Victorian Era) Originally 5th in line for throne.
Dad died from pneumonia (making her 4th in line)
King Edward III died too (making her 3rd in line)
1827 Duke of York dies (making her 2nd in line)
1830: King William IV dies (1st in line)
June 20, 1837: King William dies (Victoria now is queen) During her reign, there was a great cultural expansion and advances in industry, science, communications and the building of the railways and the London Underground. February 10, 1840 Married to first cousin Prince Albert Queen Victoria died at Cowes, Isle of Wight, England, UK, on January 22, 1901. Her husband died in 1861. Queen Elizabeth II Born on April 21, 1926 in London, England Became queen on February 6, 1952, and was crowned on June 2, 1953 She married Philip Mountbatten in 1947 Queen Elizabeth II tried to make the British monarchy more modern and sensitive to the public during her reign She is currently still Queen. She has been on the throne for about 60 years. This was celebrated in June 2012, with the Diamond Jubilee. Charles Darwin Born on February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. Famous for his theories of evolution and natural selection. In 1831, Darwin went on a trip on the H.M.S Beagle with Robert Fitzroy to conduct research on the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Many people disagreed with Darwin's theories because they conflicted with their religious beliefs. Darwin written the book "The Origin of Species" that helped shaped the modern world. Died on April 19, 1809 in Downe, Kent, England. Sir Alexander Fleming Born in 1881, died in 1955 Fleming is famous for the discovery of penicillin. Fleming actually discovered penicillin by accident. The bacteria, "staphylococcus", was infected with a mold. The mold, "Penicillum notatum", was killing the bacteria. Fleming won the Nobel Prize in 1945. Fleming never patented his discovery so it could be used cheaply and effectively by anyone to benefit as many people as possible. High class compared to lower class in dining 20th century
Fish and chips were considered street food, for the poor and lower class. In England, a formal afternoon tea is called low tea, and high tea was only drunk with meat and a meal. The rich referred to drinking tea as “supper and Tea” to avoid associations with the lower class.

21st century
High tea today isn’t as symbolic to just the upper class, no matter the class you are in; tea is associated in almost every meal. It is even considered a snack at times in the British culture. Members of the lower class generally believe the higher class food is disgusting and the rich believe the lower class isn’t etiquette or organized.
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