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Baking Molecular Gastronomy
Transcript of Baking Molecular Gastronomy
3/4 cup packed brown sugar -
sucrose and flavoring
1 cup butter -
1 large egg -
emulsifier, albumin, fat, protein
2 1/4 cups-all purpose flour -
1 teaspoon baking soda -
sodium bicarbonate, serves as a base
1/2 teaspoon salt -
2 cups semi-sweet chocolate chips -
Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Mix sugar, brown sugar, butter, vanilla and eggs in a large bowl.
No chemical reaction while mixing
Stir in flour, baking soda, and salt.
Flour forms gluten a more elastic mixture and is added later to keep gluten complexes small
Dough is able to break apart and can form smaller pieces
Baking soda is a leavening agent softening the mixture.
Stir in chocolate chips.
Not significant in terms of a chemical reaction
Ingredient to add flavor to the cookie.
Drop dough by rounded tablespoonfuls 2 inches apart onto ungreased cookie sheet.
The size of the dough is not just preference but determines the results of the cookie.
Carbon dioxide gas bubbles form throughout the entire cookie
However, only the outer edge of the cookies caramelize.
Bake 8 to 10 minutes or until the cookies
become light brown.
Heat allows sucrose (sugar) to break down into glucose and fructose.
Causes a polymer chain-->light brown, shiny crust
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) absorbs heat
Carbon dioxide seen as bubbles in the cookies
The sodium chloride (salt) slows production of the carbon dioxide and keeps bubbles small
The fat (butter) controls the formation of gluten from the flour, -->lighter texture as well as role in taste
The emulsifier (fat and protein from the egg yolk) holds the dough together
Albumin from the egg whites support the bubbles.
The centers will be soft. Let cool completely then remove from cookie sheet.
Remove from cookie sheet and place on wire rack or on a table to finish cooling.
During cooling: completion of the caramelization process (this gives it the brown-ish color)
Structure developed by both the gluten and the egg to set.
The Maillard Reaction:
The Maillard Reaction takes place in many cooking processes, and it is possibly the most favored and flavored chemical reaction. The Maillard Reaction is actually a series of many complex reactions between reducing sugars (carbohydrates) and an amino acid (the basic foundation of all proteins).
Step 1: A reducing sugar (such as glucose) reacts with an amino acid to form a product called the Amadori compound.
The Amadori compound easily isomerises into three different structures that can react differently in the following steps.
Step 2: Depending on the isomer of the Amadori compound, the amino acid can either be completely removed, or the isomer can be rearranged. This rearrangement is the main contributing factor towards the browning or change of color of the food during the reaction.
Step 3: Depending on the rearrangement, there are three different possible pathways:
fission – production of short chain hydrolytic products
strecker degradations – involves amino acids or the condensation to adols
* Other contributing factors may also cause the reaction to form acrylamide and furans, dangerous substances that could potentially cause cancer.
Such factors include:
pH level – (example: a higher pH value results in a faster Maillard reaction for a pretzel, giving a saltier taste and an even darker color of brown)
presence of oxygen
types of amino acids
Caramelization is the process of sugars breaking down.
Simply speaking, caramelization is the process of removal of water from a sugar (such as sucrose or glucose) followed by isomerization and polymerisation. In reality the caramelization process is a complex series of chemical reactions, which is still poorly understood.
Cake Mix: Behind the Scenes
Water vs. Ice Cream
Pure Liquid vs. Impure Solution
How does this affect the immediate temperature of the ice?
What happens after the ice cream cools?
Scientific Ice Cream
Sensitive to its chemical surroundings
Seen by the alteration of the rate of reaction based on the pH level.
Usually occurs slowest when the acidity is near neutral (pH of 7),
Accelerated under both acidic and alkaline conditions.
different stages = different names = characteristics
“Thread” - sugar can be spun into soft or hard threads
“Ball” - sugar can easily be molded into a proper shape
“Crack” indicates that the sugar will hard after cooling
(and crack when it is broken)
Why does ice cream remain solid, but still soft when put in the freezer?
Ice cream has a lower freezing point than water. It has more particles, which makes it more difficult for the water molecules in ice cream to overcome, thus making it more difficult to freeze.
Caramelization is the process of removal of water from a sugar (such as sucrose or glucose) followed by isomerization and polymerisation.
The caramelization process is a complex series of chemical reactions....
The vapor pressure of the solution is lower than that of the pure solvent.
Freezing point depression
Why do we use a mixture of salt and ice to make ice cream?
To solidify ice cream, its temperature must be brought to below zero. Therefore, pure ice cannot be used, because water's freezing point is 0 degrees Celsius.
Adding rock salt to ice lowers its freezing point.
energy is required to form the hydrogen bonds necessary for ice
Impurities (salt) added to a pure liquid prevents water from making hydrogen bonds and achieving solidity.
The water must become even colder before it freezes.
Adding salt to ice
Temperature of the brine solution decreases dramatically
As the ice melts, the heat of the ice mass is preserved by lowering the temperature (called latent heat).
Water freezes out of the solution and into its pure form: ice crystallization
Concentration of the remaining solution of sugar is increased (due to the removal of water)
Freezing point of the ice cream is further lowered
This process of freeze concentration continues to very low temperatures. Even at the typical ice cream serving temperature of -16 degrees Celsius, only about 72% of the water is frozen. The rest remains as a very concentrated sugar solution.
The Perfect Cookie
There are also several factors that can affect the
rate of reaction.
It takes place in several steps..
Caramelization and the Maillard Reaction are
different browning processes. The Maillard Reaction is the break down of sugars in the presence of proteins, therefore it contributes to the browning and flavoring of bread crusts.
studying the chemistry behind baking
Erica Rowane Bautista, Liat Kugelmass,
Jamie Lee & Carrie Xu
Adv. Chem Blue 4
Flour + Water --> Gluten
Complex protein that allows for the formation and maintenance of gas bubbles, which provides the mix with its malleability
Maintain moisture - increase shelf life
Influences yeast growth
Expand gas bubbles to raise baked goods
Fats and oils
Stearin: naturally-occurring, hard fat from animals
Palmitin: fat from animal and plant sources
Olein: oil from animal and plant sources
Linolin: oil present in cottonseed oil
Fix fats and liquids together
Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda)
These are just a few of the scientific processes that occur when baking or making desserts. There are still many more scientific concepts that can be further explored, which can also be seen in our additional posts on our blog.
We hope you enjoyed this Prezi!
What You Will Need
glazing of milk and egg
crusts of baked goods
browning of most food surfaces