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Phillip S

on 9 November 2017

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Marriage and Family
Transition and problems in families
Transitions and Problems in Families
Transitions and problems in families
Patterns of Parenting
Key Terms
Patterns of Parenting
Statistical Trends on Divorce
Mate Selection
Endogamy-the practice of marrying within one's own social group or category
-The divorce rate in the United States began increasing sharply in the late 1960's
-Has remained mostly the same since hitting a peak in the 1980's
-The average American woman will have 1.9 children in their lifetime
-This has decreased since the 1950's
-Rates differ across ethnic groups
2012 stats:
White Non-Hispanic 51 per 1,000
African-American 60 per 1,000
American Indian 72 per 1,000
Single-Parent Households-there has been a significant increase in the percentage of single parent households

25% of American households
Children raised in these environments face higher rates of academic struggles, and poverty
Family Violence
-refers to various forms of abuse that take place among family members (child abuse, spousal abuse, elder abuse)

Domestic Violence
-any intentional act by partners in an intimate relationship
Children in Foster Care
Do you anticipate the current climb in age of first marriage and decrease in average numbers of children to continue in the United States? Why or why not?
What do you know about historical marriage trends?
Historically, which partner's family has had more wealth going into a marriage?
Is the average age of marriage in America increasing or decreasing?
Are there significant regional differences in the age of marriage in the United States?
Currently, is one gender more likely to be older when married? If so, which gender?
Exogamy-the practice of marrying outside one's own social group or category
Patterns of Parenting
Sociologists have studied gender-specific socialization that establishes dominant-subordinate sex roles as a contributor to some domestic violence
Foster Care
-institutional settings or residences where adults other than a child's own parents or biological relatives serve as caregivers
-More than 500,000 children are in foster care
-Many never find a permanent home
-Many of the challenges of foster children continue into their mid to late 20s
Certain factors are highly correlated with higher divorce rates:
-Lower income
-Lower education
-Younger age of marriage
-Having no religious affiliation
More on Divorce/Remarriage
-60% of divorcing couples have one or more children
-Men are more likely to experience feelings of depression following a divorce
-More than 40 percent of all marriages in 2011 were between previously married brides and grooms
-Most people who get a divorce get remarried
(75% of divorced men remarry, 60% of divorced women remarry)
-Men and Women with children are more likely to remarry than men and women without children
Quiz Yourself
After a divorce, which gender is more likely to remarry?

Do women with children remarry more often than women without children?
"blended families"
-consist of a married couple and children from previous marriages and potentially children from the new marriage
the concurrent marriage of a person of one sex with two or more members of the opposite sex
polygyny-1 male with multiple females
polyandry-1 female with multiple males
What factor do you feel could assist with combating domestic violence? Why do you feel that could be effective?
Adoption in the United States has increased over the past 50 years, however the rates have declined since 2000

A high percentage of U.S. couples consider adoption, even if they don't end up adopting a child
Infertility and New Technologies

1 in 8 couples is unable to conceive by natural means

Artificial Insemination is one of the most common techniques used (sperm is manually injected into a woman's vagina)

In Vitro Fertilization is another common method (Eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries and sperm is added in a petri dish, the fertilized egg is then transferred to a woman's uterus)
1-Costs are very high (one cycle of in vitro-$10,000, donor eggs-$3,000)

2-Gender of the offspring
Embryos created outside the womb can be tested for gender

3-"Designer Genes"
Careful selection of egg and sperm donors raises some controversy
Issues Involving Reproductive Technologies
Impact of children on marriage
-During the first five years of parenthood, marital happiness declines but marital stability increases

Belsky and Kelly found that entry of a child into marriage changes the marriage in one of four ways:

1) 13% of new parents are "severe decliners" that are very split by their differences and lose faith in each other and their marriage-communication diminishes
2) 38% are "moderate decliners" who avoid a dramatic falling out but love and communication decreases somewhat
3) 30% experience no change in their marital happiness
4) 19% are "improvers" who find that their marriage is enhanced in areas like communication and love
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