Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Introduction to Nutrients
Transcript of Introduction to Nutrients
Functions & Food Sources
There are two types of nutrients:
Macronutrients - large molecules that are required in high quantities (Carbohydrates, Fats & Proteins).
Micronutrients - small in size and required in small quantities (Vitamins and Minerals)
B Group Vitamins
Nutrients are organic and inorganic substances found in the body for the growth and maintenance of body systems.
Nutrients work together in the body to perform various functions - they do not work alone.
When food is digested by the body, the nutrients from this food are released and transported to cells. The cells then use these nutrients to perform required body functions, such as:
- energy production
- growth and repair
- replacement of cells and tissue
- regulation of body processes
- help protect the body from disease
Nutritional needs of the body change throughout the lifespan.
Eating a wide variety of foods is needed to obtain the required daily nutrients.
Provide the body with energy (preferred fuel source).
Divided into two main groups:
- (sugars) found in fruit, honey & milk.
- (starches) found in vegetables & grains.
- (fibre) found in wheat bran, wheat germ, soy beans & chickpeas.
Sugars and starches are broken down into glucose.
Fibre is not digested, but acts as roughage to help move food through the digestive system, and collects waste in this process.
Needed for growth, repair and maintenance of body cells and tissues.
Secondary source of energy in the body.
Proteins are made up of amino acids.
There are 20 amino acids, however 8 of these, known as 'essential amino acids' cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained from the food we eat.
All cells in the body contain protein, so protein levels need to be maintained.
There are two types of protein:
Complete Proteins - Provide the correct balance of the 8 essential amino acids that build body tissue. Found in foods of ANIMAL origin (meat, poultry, eggs & milk).
Incomplete Proteins - Lacks certain amino acids, but eating a variety of plant foods can provide all of the essential amino acids.
Found in PLANT foods (nuts, legumes, beans).
Not all fats are bad!
- protects body organs
- source of energy
- move nutrients around the body
- aids hormone production
Fats are found in both plant and animal foods.
Fat provides the body with energy, but it takes longer for the body to break the fat down into an energy source.
Classification of fats:
- Saturated fats
- Monounsaturated fats
- Polyunsaturated fats
- Trans fats
- Found in animal foods
- Solidify at room temperature
- Raise bad cholesterol -> Increased risk of CV disease
- Plant based
- Helps to lower the bad cholesterol
- Increases good cholesterol
(Avocado, nuts, meats, olive oil, canola & peanut oils
- Also plant based
- Normally linked to fish & seafood
- Omega-3 fats: found in plants & seafood
(Regulates blood pressure & good for immune system)
- Omega-6 fats: found in walnuts, brazil nuts, sunflower, corn & soy oils
(Lowers the risk of CV disease)
- Rare in nature
- Created in stomachs of cows and sheep, naturally found in milk, cheese, beef & lamb in small amounts.
- Used in the food industry to make pies, biscuits, pastries, etc.
- Raise levels of bad cholesterol but also lower levels of good cholesterol... Very bad for you!!
- Produced in the liver from the saturated foods we eat.
- Comes from animal based foods we eat.
- Helps to absorb fat from food.
- Needed to produce some hormones.
LDL = bad - deposits cholesterol on the walls of arteries.
HDL = good - delivers cholesterol to the liver to be disposed of.
Glycaemic Index (GI)
A ranking of carbohydrate foods based on their overall effect on blood glucose levels.
High GI foods cause blood glucose levels to rise and fall rapidly.
(white bread, potatoes, glucose (lollies), white rice)
Low GI foods produce only small fluctuations in blood glucose levels.
(grainy bread, oats, lentils)
Two main types of fibre:
- decreases the absorption of cholesterol.
(fruits, vegetables, barley, lentils)
- promotes regular bowel movements.
(bran, nuts, seeds, veg & fruit skins)
Water is essential for life.
- carries nutrients to cells
- regulates body temperature
- helps to excrete waste in urine
- forms part of blood (80% of blood is water)
- helps the body digest food & absorb nutrients
- lubricates joints
- Drinking WATER!
- Can get water from some vegetables & fruit.
There are two types of vitamins:
- dissolve easily in water
- excreted, not stored
- need to be absorbed daily
- not soluble in water
- need to be stored in the liver or fatty tissue
- transported around body by special proteins
- essential for vision, normal bone growth and reproduction.
- needed for the health of skin & mucous membranes.
- Animal products (butter, cod liver oil, chicken livers).
- Fruit & Vegetables containing yellow or dark green pigments (body converts this to Vit A).
- helps the body absorb calcium & phosphorus (aids the formation of bones, teeth & cartilage)
- egg yolk
- cod liver oil
- essential for formation of collagen
- essential for body growth , tissue repair & wound healing
- protects against infection
- helps the body absorb iron
- aids in the production of red blood cells
- brussel sprouts
- kiwi fruit
There are eight B group vitamins
- energy production
- production of red blood cells
- manufacture of DNA
- metabolism of fat & carbohydrates
- functioning of the nervous system
- dairy products
- liver & kidneys
Folate is a B group vitamin
- making DNA (genes)
- needed for normal growth & neural tube development
- helps to form red blood cells
The most abundant mineral in the body.
- construction & maintenance of bones & teeth
- regulates heart beat
- helps nerve & muscle function
- dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt)
The second most abundant mineral in the body
- works with B vitamins to release energy from food
- synthesis of protein
- assists in muscle contraction
- needed for the formation of red blood cells
- component of haemoglobin, which helps transport oxygen around the body
- part of myoglobin (a protein in muscle cells) and transports oxygen to muscles
- red meats
- liver & kidney
- green leafy vegetables
- nuts & seeds
- controls the amount of water in the body
- aids nerve & muscle function
- maintains normal blood levels
- helps increase tooth mineralisation & bone density
- prevents dental decay
- water (tap water)
- any food prepared with fluoridated water
- processed foods
- most foods will contain sodium
- needed to make thyroid hormones required for normal body metabolism & growth
- iodised salt