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The Cold War: 1945-1991

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Melissa Luu

on 4 June 2013

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Transcript of The Cold War: 1945-1991

The Cold War 1945-1991 How it all began: Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki Aug. 6, 1945 & Aug. 9, 1945 Truman used an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima first. Three days later, Truman did not get the response he wanted and dropped another one on Nagasaki ending the Second World War. Division of Germany 1945-1949 Background:
Yalta and Potsdam Conference: Germany was punished for the destruction of militarism, and Nazism, generous reparations for themselves
Occupation Zones:
Aug.30, 1945: Allied Control Council was created
West German Unification:
Dec. 1946: Allies unified their zones known as ”Brizonia”, and in 1948 the French joined
Aug. 1949: first free elections occurred, and Konrad Adenhauer was the first chancellor of government with their capital as Bonn
Creation of East Germany:
Oct. 1949 East Germany also known as German Democratic Republic, was a “soviet-Style” regime The Truman Doctrine: March 1947 Truman came up with this economic and military aid to give Greece and Turkey $400 million. This a political response to prevent expansion of communism. The Marshall Plan: June 1947 George Marshall proposed that USA should give aid to European nations to rebuild their economies, and to balance budgets within 4 years
16 nations met in conference in Paris
OEEC was established, and administered the plan where $28 billion came from the US
USSR didn’t apply for this because they were against US political and economic freedom
Feb.1948, Marshall Plan stopped because communism spread to Czechoslovakia and westwards The Berlin Blockade and Airlift: 1948 Germany was split into 4 zones with Berlin in the Russian sector
Soviet Union refused to accept currency reform by the Western Allies in Berlin and blockaded the Western transportation corridors
The West responded with the airlift, which supplied West Berlin for 15 months
Once the Soviets found that the blockade was not working, the American and Soviet representatives on the Security Council (UN) negotiated, resulting 2 separate governments in Berlin
The airlift was an example of the Truman Doctrine
Major outcome of this event was formation of NATO NATO : April, 1949 The Americans made peacetime military commitment to Europe ( The Berlin Blockade)
Had 12 members: Great Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Canada, USA, Greece, Turkey, West Germany. (France left)
Main resolutions of the pact:
the renunciation of war
mutual assistance in the event of aggression on any member
aggression was determined by the signatory state involved
20 year treaty
permanent military headquarters in Paris Containment: This was introduced by George Kennan an American Charge d' Affaires in Moscow. Containment was used to describe the American policy of defending the status quo in Europe and soon the rest of the world. 1946 The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and NATO were containment initiatives. McCarthyism: Senator Joseph McCarthy took over the House Un-American Activities A period of extreme paranoia of communism swept across the U.S.A. because McCarthy saw reds everywhere Many innocent people were damaged by McCarthy's Committee The Korean War: June, 1950- July, 1953 North Korea was liberated by Soviets from the Japanese while the South had been freed by the U.S.A
In 1960, Syngman Rhee turned South Korea into a dictatorship
The boundary between North and South was the 38th parallel
Truman Doctrine was applied to Asia when North attacked the South
The Soviets boycotted the Security Council of the U.N. ( with 16 nations under the flag and American dominance )
American general, Douglas MacArthur was in command of all U.N. troops
Oct. 7, 1950: U.S. troops crossed the 38th parallel heading towards Chinese borders
Oct. 26, 1950: the Chinese pushed the Americans well back of the 38th parallel in 2 weeks
Truman scared everyone with the use of A-bombs but was convinced not to use it by British P.M. Attlee
Jan. & Feb. 1951, MacArthur pushed the Chinese back to the 38th parallel Truman:
wanted to practice containment
didn't want a war of liberation anymore MacArthur:
Didn't want to practice containment
Wanted a war of liberation pushing into Mainland China April 11, 1951: Truman fired MacArthur
Nov.12, 1952: Dwight was elected as president
John Foster Dulles threatened China with A-bombs if they didn't agree to return U.S. POW's, & on July 23, 1953 Chinese agreed and a military armistice was signed The Berlin Blockade and Airlift: June, 1948 The Warsaw Pact: 1955 A military alliance by the USSR and all European satellite states
It was a response to NATO
After Stalin's death in 53' Malenkov was the leader for 2 years
1955: Khrushchev replaced Malenkov with his creation of deStalinization- brought satellite states into an alliance
DeStalinization was the beginning of less harsher relations between the USSR & satellite states Attempts at Breaking Soviet Domination: In Eastern Europe, a number of satellite states tried to gain "freedom" from the USSR in the post-Stalinist era. In 1953 the first attempt was when Soviet tanks crashed in the Berlin uprising. Two other attempts broke out in Poland and Hungary later on. Poland: 1956 Fall and Spring of 1956, strikers demanded more freedom from the USSR
Wladyslaw Gomulka was established & stayed in power for 14 years:
A) he decollectivized Polish agriculture
B) lifted restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church Gomulka had been imprisoned by Stalin as First Secretary
He stayed in the Communist Bloc while he was in power Hungarian Rising: 1956 Imre Nagy replaced Stalinist Rakosi. Nagy was also imprisoned by Stalin
He was forced to promise more freedom
As Moscow backed down Nagy pulled away from the Warsaw Pact
Nov. 4: Soviet tanks entered Budapest killing 30 000 & 200 000 fleed
Janos Kadar replaced Nagy for 20 years and followed Gomulka's path The Prague Spring: 1989 Czechoslovakia built a democratic tradition in inter-war years
1968: Alexander Dubcek became Secretary replacing Novotny (a Stalinist)
He gained freedom of press, assembly, worship, the right to strike, & freedom to travel abroad, calling is reform movement " socialism with a human face"
This movement threatened to spread to Romania. It introduced an independent bloc of Eastern Europe
Dubcek was arrested, but when he was released, he was replaced by Husak. He followed Moscow's line & freedom disappeared The Prague Spring:1989 The Brezhnev Doctrine During Czechoslovakian crisis, Leonid Brezhnev announced that it was the right and duty of fraternal socialist countries to intervene with each others affairs when socialism was threatened Khrushchev and the West: The Geneva Conference: 1955 Took place during era of deStalinization & renewed optimism in East- West relations
Participants: Eden (U.K.), Eisenhower (U.S.A.), Mendes-France (France), and Bulganin (Germany)
4 leaders discussed security, armaments, German unification, & closer contacts between East and West
No major agreements were reached, yet former Allies agreed to end the joint occupation in Austria Khrushchev and the West: Austrian Peace Treaty: 1955 May: 4 major powers signed this treaty making Austria an independent state
Bounded Austria to permanent neutrality by forbidding that country to join any military alliances
Was the only peace treaty signed by western nations and the USSR since 1946 Khrushchev and the West: The Suez Crisis: 1955-1956 1955: Egypt had a trade agreement with the USSR where Egypt received arms from Czechoslovakia. This action threatened the security of Israel. Egyptian president Nasser used propaganda attacks.
1956: American Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles withdrew US intentions to help Egypt build the Aswan Dam in retaliation of Nasser's agreement with USSR
Fall 1956: Israel attacked Egypt and drove through Sinai Peninsula toward the Suez Canal
British and French demanded ceasefire & permission to occupy key points on the Canal. When Egypt refused, British and French troops invaded Suez Canal.
UN Gerneral Assembly withdrew by sending UNEF forces to the Near East
UNEF became peacekeeping forces in the future, was one of the most success
USSR extended its influence to Syria and Iraq Khrushchev and the West: Peaceful Co-existence Krushchev stated that USSR was ready to peacefully compete with the USA on a global basis
The Eisenhower Doctrine was the American response to Khrushchev: it was a policy of using US troops if necessary to intervene in the Middle East to help against communist aggression
Was a relaxation of tensions in the Cold War
a new era of competition between the USA & USSR
USSR broke the Baghdad Pact (CENTO) by arranging and arms deal between the Egyptians and Czechs.
To increase Soveit influence, Khrushchev visited India, Afganistan, & Burma- trying to build a string of Soviet states in response to American alliance system (which didn't reduce tension)
In the last years of 1950's Soviets enjoyed their superiority in the space race- thought to gain some mileage causing the Sino-Soviet split
Soviet aggressiveness:
Khrushchev's "we will burry you speech" in 1956
Soveit aggressiveness in the Middle East
Continued as Khrushchev to force the Allies to remove forces in Berlin, 1959
In the Cuban Missile build up Khrushchev chose to compete in the Western hemisphere The Space Race: 1957 A part of peaceful co-existence
Aug. 4: USSR launched Sputnik, the first earth-orbiting satellite
Sputnik was slightly larger than a basketball and had A-bombs
At the time there was no known defence against missiles
USA was behind and made drastic changes from rocket research to high-school math and physics
Khrushchev and USSR were now ahead Summit Conference: 1960 Meeting took place in Paris
MacMillan, de Gaulle, Eisenhower, & Khrushchev ended
When Khrushchev refused to meet with the western leaders until the US apologized & took action against U-2 incident:
Gary Powers (American pilot) was shot down by a missile over the USSR The Berlin Wall: 1961 Khrushchev tried to rid the Western Allies of Berlin as people left the East for the West- it was an ideological embarrassment to the Soviets
The benefits of communism was not attractive enough to keep the population at home, the influence in the west was more attractive
As Kennedy increased American strength, Khrushchev responded by building the Berlin Wall on Aug. 13
It was made of concrete, barbed wire, & guarded with "shoot to kill" guards
Since 1949, more than 3 million Germans left East Berlin to West- most were skilled workers
This was a sense of victory for Khrushchev
Khrushchev ordered one 58 megaton bomb, Kennedy responded by ordering one new tests himself
1963: Kennedy made his speech "Ich bin ein Berliner" announcing his commitment to the defense of Berlin The Berlin Wall: 1961 The Cuban Missile Crisis: Background USA gained control of Cuba in late 19th century during Spanish-American war
The US was supporting a corrupt regime under Fulgencio Batista who illegally seized power in 1933
The Americans controlled Cuban economy (*major Cuban industries such as sugar)
Wealth was not distributed equally
Jan. 1, 1959: Cuban Revolution
Fidel Castro organized a guerrilla force and overthrew the Batista regime
Cuba and the US after the Revolution
It was clear that Cuba and the USA became enemies when Castro nationalized all American owned factories & plantations
July: USA stopped buying Cuban sugar
Feb. 1960: Castro signed a trade agreement with the USSR where they bought all of Cuba's sugar and provided them aid
Jan. 1961: USA broke of all diplomatic relations with Cuba The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Bay of Pigs Kennedy inherited the plan from Eisenhower
April, 1961: American support for Cuban exiles to re-invade & recapture Cuba
It involved the C.I.A. and Americans offered their military base, Guatemala as their marshalling ground
small force of 1400 Cuban patriots were embarrassed by Cuban forces because none made it ashore
Castro shortly announced that Cuba was a Marxist state The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Missile Build Up Spring & Summer 1962, USSR deployed missiles in Cuba. Three Reasons were:
The USSR was behind in the space race. The USA was capable of launching I.C.B.M's (inter-continental ballistic missiles). If Khrushchev could get away with missiles in Cuba, he could equalize the strategic situation.
Cuba and the USSR feared an American invasion (ex. The Bay of Pigs)
Khrushchev could convince the USA to remove missiles in Turkey The Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Missiles in Cuba The Cuban Missiles Crisis: The Crisis Develops: Aug. 1962, U-2 plane photographed Soviet missiles in Cuba. Once Kennedy found out, he kept it as a secret until he had figured out a solution. He came up with 3 options:
1. A diplomatic or political solution where the USA & USSR would negotiate a
settlement
2. A conventional attack and invasion
3. "Quarantine" (a naval blockade)
JFK's Attorney General, Robert Kennedy convinced him to go with the third plan
Oct. 22: Kennedy informed the world of Soviet missiles in Cuba and his plan to "quarantine" Cuba
The missiles in Cuban were offensive & 48 states were in range of the missiles
The USA Navy set up a blockade around Cuba defying Soviet ships
Khrushchev responded in a speech The Cuban Missile Crisis: Resolution: Kennedy wanted a clear victory while Khrushchev wouldn't back down
One of the key elements of the Cold War was to "draw" the countries of your world into your "camp"- if your camp was weak, it would lose attraction
Kennedy placed the military on DEFCON Three rating on the day of the announcement and changed it to DEFCON Two, 2 days later ( Defensive Condition )
Oct. 24, 1962: Soviet ships turned back- reduced tension
Oct. 26, 1962: Kennedy received a letter from Khrushchev, he proposed that he would remove missiles in Cuba if the US promised to not invade
Oct. 27, 1962: the second letter from Khrushchev demanded Kennedy to remove American missiles in Turkey
Kennedy's brother, Robert suggested that he only respond to the first letter & ignore the second since it was demanding- it was done & Khrushchev accepted
The United Nations became involved- they had to supervise the Soviet missile removal and ship inspections by the Americans 1962 The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis: Significance The crisis was different from others during the Cold War because:

It was direct and military
Soviet ships were approaching the American Navy protected by submarines- removed
Nuclear focus
Crisis such as the Berlin Blockade was not directly about their nuclear weapons & their deployment
Brinkmanship
Kennedy practiced this when he handled the 2 letters received from Khrushchev
This was a form of diplomacy where participants take events to the edge or brink The Cuban Missile Crisis: Kennedy Addresses Nations on the Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis: Results of the Crisis Kennedy and Khrushchev established the "red phone" between the Kremlin and the White House
Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to an atmospheric test ban treaty 9 months after
Cuba came out of the crisis as a Soviet satellite
Oct. 1964: Khrushchev was dismissed as a the Soviet leader The European Economic Community: Motives that Created EEC (European Economic Community) Limiting the effects of excessive nationalism
Establishing a free trade bloc
Establishing a common front against communism The European Economic Community: Steps to Formation 1. The Council of Europe: 1949 This organization was to promote unity among nations with a common heritage
Worked mostly around area of human rights
Britain was not a member 2. The Schuman Plan: 1950 Schuman was the French Foreign Minister
He planned to manage all steel & coal production in France and Germany as one unit
It was to create a "common market" for coal and steel
The conference included: France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Britain, Netherlands 3. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) : 1952 Was established with all the above in the conference except Britain because she didn't trust Europe & thought her membership would interfere with the world, the Empire and Commonwealth
Britain also thought it had a special relationship with the USA 4. European Defence Community: 5. Euratom: 1957 A plan to unite the defences of all ECSC countries
This plan eventually blocked France A plan to reduce the dependance on Arab oil by developing atomic power alternatives
Britain didn't become a member because she was reluctant to share her nuclear technology
France failed in developing own nuclear technology The Nuclear Arms Race: Social, Economic, Political, Military, & Consequences: New element were nuclear weapons. After the bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, the Soviets detonated one bomb 2900 times stronger in the 1960's
Fear of annihilation was an everyday feature of the Cold War (ex. Cuban Missile Crisis)
The development of various anti-war & anti-weapons movements
Spending billion of dollars on nuclear research- the USSR couldn't afford "guns" & "butter"
The development of "military industrial complex"
The USA & USSR tried to present scenario which made their country appear superior
The development of corresponding military alliances in Europe ( ex. NATO & the Warsaw Pact) The Nuclear Arms Race: In early years of the nuclear arms race, the airplane was the delivery system
1957: the most obvious threat was the ICBM's (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile)
MIRV's ( Multiple Independently Targeted Re-entry Vehicles) had the capacity to send one rocket & release many warheads at diff. targets
Nuclear submarines developed the capacity to launch missiles with nuclear warheads from far under the sea
Both the USA & USSR developed mobile missile systems such as the Perishing 11 & the Cruise (USA) & the SS20 (Soviet) Delivery Systems: The Nuclear Arms Race: Vocabulary of the Arms Race: MAD- Mutually Assured Destruction
SAC- Strategic Air Command
American air force- planes kept aloft 24/7 loaded with nuclear weapons
Conventional Weapons
Russians given a large edge in all weapons shot of nuclear weapons
Pre-emptive Strike
A suprise nuclear attack meant to disable the enemy
ICBM- Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile
A rocket travelling in space aimed at another continent carrying a nuclear warhead The Vietnam War
1954-1975 Geneva Agreement of 1954 May, 1954: when a French garrison surrendered at Dien Bien Phu, the end of the war between the Vietnamese and French forces formally settled at Geneva
Geneva Agreement of 1954:
Laos & Cambodia were granted independence
Vietnam was temporarily divided at the 17th parallel
Vietnam was to have elections in 1956 to determine the reunification of Vietnam yet it never happened & Indochina marked a communist victory
Outcome:
North ruled by Ho Chi Minh (Communist)
South ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem (Catholic governing mostly Buddhist population)
The Diem regime was opposed by the NLF (National Liberation front) and Viet Cong (a guerrilla force) in the South - both groups were supported by the North
The North never accepted a divided Vietnam even though the agreement was signed The Vietnam War 1954- 1975: Gulf of Tonkin One of the key events in the escalation of the war
Aug. 1964: when North Vietnamese torpedoed an American destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin
This led to the Tonkin Gulf Resolution giving Johnson the infamous "all necessary powers" & "all necessary measures" authority
American forces were involved (ground forces and air force support)
Numbers grew larger in troops from 200 000 in 1956 to 600 000 in 1968
The NLF (Communist within South Vietnam) increased in aid from the North; aid came via the Ho Chi Minh Trail
Escalation continued because USA refused to see conflict as a civil war
It was a wider plan to expand communism
1956: Johnson changed his status of American troops from advisers to combat troops The Vietnam War 1954-1975 Gulf of Tonkin The Ho Chi Minh Trail The Vietnam War 1954- 1975: Vietnamization 1969: anti-war movement reached a sophisticated level, "dropout hippies"
Vietnamization was Nixon's plan to make military of South Vietnam capable of defending itself to allow the USA to withdraw & establish a creditable political regime in South Vietnam
This plan included Nixon, Henry Kissinger (American Secretary of State, & Henry Cabot Lodge (American negotiator at the on-going Paris peace talks) Two Track Formula: Kissinger's basis of Nixon's plan for next 4 years: military & political solution Withdrawal: Aug. 1969 was the first withdrawal
key events:
July, 1970: The New Nixon Peace Offensive - His plan was to remove American ground forces and step up to air war where the USA unleashed B-52 bombing North Vietnam to get them to make concessions at the conference in Paris
1971: war changed into air war
1972: Nixon continued to bomb Northern cities as the USA were down 200 000 men
Jan. 27, 1973: ceasefire with North Vietnam was signed
Aug. 15, 1973: all USA forces were out of Vietnam
Spring, 1975: South Vietnam fell into Communists The Vietnam War 1954-1975: The Watergate Scandal 1968 election: Richard Nixon became President
1972 election: five men working for the Republican Party were arrested for breaking into the Watergate hotel attempting to place 'bugs' (headquarters of the Democratic Party)
The worst abuses of the executive level of the American government were exposed, in which the investigation became larger
many high ranking Nixon advisers were arrested
Aug. 1974, Nixon resigned Indochina: Laos Was former colony of France
Granted independence at the Geneva Agreements of 1954
Pathet Lao, a communist organization worked easily with the Viet Cong
Ho Chi Minh Trail was a supply line for the Viet Cong that entered Laos just above the seventeenth parallel
Power struggle between Prince Souphanou Vong (backed by Russians, Chinese, Vietnamese, & the Pathet Lao) & Prince Souvanna (backed by the USA)
This struggle had superpower implications & neither wanted war over Laos
1962: Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to recognize the neutrality of Laos, limiting supplies
1970: communist controlled 1/3 of Laos, 1975: Laos fell into Pathet Lao
Prince Vong was now Premier of the People's Democratic Republic of Laos
In the late 1980's , reforms were made leading into the New Western-style constitution in 1991 Indochina: Laos Prince Souphanou Vong Prince Souvanna Phoumi Indochina: Cambodia 1954-1970: Prince Sihanouk ruled Cambodia trying to keep his country out of the Inochinese War
Khmer Rouge, a Communist challenged Sihanouk to rule in 1964
North Vietnamese irregulars as well as American & South Vietnamese troops were on their "search and kill" operations, all violated Cambodia's neutrality
1975: a military coup established Khmer Rouge with Pol Pot as an abso lute dictator
Pol Pot massacred approximately 1 million people in the next 4 years known as the Killing Fields
1979: Pol Pot & Khmer Rouge were removed from power by Khmer people and the Vietnamese army
Cambodia was renamed Kampuchea until 1989
During the 1990's Cambodia became a Democratic country Killing of Khmer Rouge The Vietnam War 1954-1975: Indochina End of Vietnam War didn't end war in Indochina
A much stronger Vietnam tried to force federation of Indochinese nations on other countries
1979: Vietnam attacked Cambodia and China attacked Vietnam to teach them a lesson
Vietnamese then drove 1 million Chinese out of Vietnam
A refugee problem was created as the Chinese fled to neighboring countries (known as boat people) India: Independence Struggle for independence was between the Muslim (minority) & the Hindu (majority)
The British left India for them to solve their problem themselves as Lord Mountbatten instructed India to prepare for independence
India was divided for the Hindus, the Sikhs, and Pakistan (East & West) for Muslims; Gandhi tried to prevent this; Jinnah administered Pakistan while Nehru controlled India
Approximately 500 000 people were killed with the movement
Aug. 1947: India received independence with Nehru as the first prime minister & a democracy was established
Gandhi (a Hindu) was assassinated by a Hindu
Jan. 1948: end of violence in separation
War was over, yet the state of Kashmir became a controversy between India and Pakistan The Middle East: The Creation of Israel Britain was the only power vitally involved in the Middle East and held Palestine as a mandate; to make Arab countries not too angry, they had to take action
Britain worked for the Arab unity and worked for the Alexandria Conference in 1944 leading to the Arab League in 1945
The Arab League turned against the British rule in the Middle East and opposed the growth of the Zionist movement in which the British were unable to control
Britain promised Arabs to limit Jewish immigration into the Palestine
Jewish leaders stopped trusting Britain because of her failure to follow up the Balfour Declaration which promised Jews a homeland in Palestine in 1917 coincidentally promised Arabs independence after WW1
Jewish leaders resorted to violence through organizations (i.e. Stern Gang/ Irgun Zwei Leumi)
1946: Jewish terrorists bombed British headquarters at the King David Hotel in Jerusalem-killed many British officials
British opinion shifted against the Jews
1947: Jews & Arabs rejected a joint Anglo-American recommendation. Britain supported both sides
United Nation was handed over the responsibility for British Foreign Secretary Bevin
In 1948 Arab and Jewish guerillas clashed violently as British troops were still present
Britain troops were asked to leave by the USA because of the violence
May 14, 1948 the mandate expired and the Jews led by Ben Gurion proclaimed Israel; War broke The Middle East: The Palestinian War: 1948 Arab nations, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, & Iraq invaded Israel to support the resistance of the Palestinians in their effort to destroy Israel
Israel won & gained the western part of the Negev Desert giving them access to the sea in the South
An enormous refugee problem existed; over 1 million Palestinians were homeless; some Palestinian refugees formed terrorist groups & attacked Israel from neighboring states
After the war was over, Israel practiced ongoing reprisals against states harbouring terrorists The Middle East: The Suez War: 1956 1954: Gamal Nasser became Prime Minister
He was an extreme nationalist and wanted to lead Arabs against Israel & evict the British from Egypt The Aswan Dam: Americans provided aid to Egypt by offering to engineer & pay for huge hydroelectricity project on the Nile River
It angered the US when Nasser pulled out of the project making an arms deal with Czechoslovakia (sponsored by USSR)
Nasser began to recognize Red-China
When Dulles pulled out of the Aswan aid package, the USSR poured money into the Aswan Project Israel Attacked: July 1956: Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal (it was the British lifeline to the East) ; unproductive negotiations were followed between France, Britain, and Egypt
Israel attacked Egypt across the Sinai. Britain & France secretly agreed to attack - they bombed Egyptian military targets followed by an invasion of British and French troops The Middle East: The Suez War: 1956 European Nations Withdrew: The Americans were outraged and threatened to cut off France & Britain's oil supply
The attack by Britain and France had gone too far knowing that they were American allies
USA supported Israel with army and money while their allies attacked an Arab country Israel Victory: It freed port of Eliat giving Israel port to the Red Sea
Israel took the Gaza strip, and was then policed by the UN
The United Nations guaranteed to stop Egyptian threats to Israeli shipping in the Straits of Tiran
The economy flourished under secure conditions Terrorism: After 1964: a new anti-Israel terrorist group formed known as El Fetah or as the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
They mounted attacks from bases in Syria, Jordan, & Lebanon The Middle East: The Six Day War, June 5-10, 1967 The Middle East: The Suez War: 1956 1967: Nasser expelled the United Nations Peace Force mobilizing Egyptian forces at the Sinai border & increased tension by the Straits of the Tiran to Israel
Israel attacked led by General Moshe Dayan
This was Israel's victory. Israel destroyed the Egyptian air force, took whole Senai, the old city of Jerusalem & West Bank, and the Golan Heights
Results of the war:
Palestinian refugees realized that Arab states couldn't win back Palestine
Israel secured much stronger frontiers The Middle East: The Yom Kippur War: October, 1973 Anwar Sadat organized the attack with the help of Syria & Iraq, to coincide with the Yom Kippur religious holiday in Israel
The USA sent massive aid to Israel; Israel managed to repel the attacks and at the end of the war, the frontiers were unchanged
Western powers began to push for a settlement of the Middle East problems because of their dependence upon oil
The OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) raised the price of crude by 70% known as the Arab Oil Embargo; which lasted 5 months yet in the next 2 years, the price of oil quadrupled
The world faced a serious economic crisis because the industrialized world had been accustomed to cheap oil prices The Middle East: Conflict in Lebanon 1945: Lebanon was granted independence by France, and was then divided among 4 Christian groups & 3 Muslim groups
1975: war broke out and ended a year later, yet fighting continued until 1991
Problem was that 500 000 Palestinian refugees lived in the South, many terrorist groups from their camps launched raids against Israel
1982: a multinational force of Americans, British, French, & Italians went to Beirut to keep peace. The USA withdrew once there were many suicidal terrorist attacks
1987: Syria sent troops to control the fighting and the PLO withdrew
Hostages were to attract attention to their cause (i.e. Terry White)
1991: Lebanon & Syria signed a "Brotherhood & Co-operation" statement; Israel objected because it had amounted to annexation of Lebanon
The problem still centers around Palestinian terrorist groups using South Lebanon as a base to attack Israel The Middle East: Conflict in Lebanon The Middle East: The Iran- Iraq War: 1980-1988 Saddam Hussein, leader of Iran feared that the fundamentalist revolution would spread to his country because majority of Iraqis were Shiite
The 2 countries made claims & counterclaims to various strips of land and sea
Iran wanted export fundamentalism while Iraq wanted to prevent it from taking hold in its country
World powers were interested because Iran & Iraq controlled much of the Middle East oil reserves
Oil tankers in the Persian Gulf were threatened by mines; the USA & Britain supported Saddam because the Western powers were being treated rudely by the fundamentalists
Both Iran and Iraq ended up bombing each other's capitol cities
1988: The UN was involved in arranging a truce
1990: formal peace terms were agreed to The Middle East: Persian Gulf War: 1990-1991 In August 1990, the Iraqi government ordered its troops to invade a rich southern oil neighbor named Kuwait; when Saddam Hussein made claims that Kuwait historically "belonged" to Iraq, international community reacted because he had the strongest army in the region. World and United Nations Reaction: "No More Munichs": USA and the UN cut off oil trade with Iraq and removed troops from Kuwait by January 15, 1990
30 other countries joined USA's developed coalition
public relations campaign tried to convince the public about preventing aggression (oil) by the slogan "no more Munichs"
The Saudi's, Syrians and Egyptians were brought into fear
To prevent Israel from joining the fray, Americans had to promise to defend Israel from using their new Patriot missile ( this missile is capable of destroying incoming missiles) The Campaign: Operation Desert Storm - bombed Baghdad and other strategic locations
On Feb. 24, a short day ground campaign drove Iraqi army out of Kuwait
Iraqu suffered heavy losses (90,000 troops)
President Bush called ceasefire for fear Issues During and After the Gulf War: Threat of weapons of mass destruction
USSR was near collapse Coalition Mistakes: War was about freedom and justice
The West had to intervene in ensuing years to prevent Saddam from eliminating the Kurds within his own borders Continuing Sanctions: Partial blockade was effective in controlling people Saddam, but punished the Iraqi people more than its leaders
continued til 2003 The Middle East Soviets In Afghanistan: The Soviets were interested in Afghanistan because gaining influence in the region was a natural extension of Russian policy
Daoud gained power in 1973 in the Soviet and began to suppress opposition parties, the Muslims
Sept. 1979, Taraki was overthrown and installed Babrak Karmal as president
The Soviets took control of the Persian Gulf, which led the West, China and India and USA boycotting the Olympics of 1980
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was the end of Dente between the East and West
In early 1980 the USSR escalated the war
1980-1988 a war followed in Afghanistan
In 1987, Karmal was replaced by Mohammed Najibullah who was controlled by the Soviet The Chinese Revolution The Chinese Revolution Mao: Before Mao's uprise, the Kuomintang came under control of Chiang Kai-shek
Mao Zedong, a Communist organizer became in charge of propaganda for a little whi
As Chiang claimed himself as ruler, Mao would not concede and built his Communist party upon peasantry (contrary to Leninist Marxism)
Mao was considered Chiang's number one enemy even when Japanese invaded Manchuria
Mao practiced his guerilla warfare successfully until Chiang's troops outnumbered his army.
Mao was unable to defeat Chiang
Chiang and Kuomintang failed effectively to the Japanese threat
Mao moved into power because his forces would do much more to resist foreign Japanese invaders than did Chiang's The Chinese Revolution Guerilla Warfare: Mao was a successful theoretician practicing form of warfare, which was his Guerilla Forces Principle of Guerilla Warfare: Act quickly to bring decisive conclusions to battle
Concentrate on big forces to strike the small section of enemy forces
Take advantage of enemies limitations (limited forces and being a foreigner)
Ability to paramount
Flexibility must be obtained (all times)
Use hit and run tactics
Make use of people's help The Chinese Revolution The Great Leap Forward: 1958 Mao's new economic plan was a result of the criticism received about the Five Year Plan
Five Year Plan emphasized at the expense of another
Hsiang, the local government organized 28,000 communes, the average size had about 25,000 people Main Aspects of this: Great industrial and scientific activity
Muscle power and ingenuity were emphasized (e.g.-irrigation canals, hydro dams, backyard steel mills)
Many small communal factories Impact of this: Mid-70's, industrial production increased (e.g- steel and coal production, chemical fertilizers)
After Mao's death in 1976, Chairman Hua put less emphasis on heavy industry
Economy allowed elements of free market The Chinese Revolution Sino-Soviet Split:
The Chinese benefited from the Soviet's help; however, by the late 1950's these two Communist powers were splitting
The lack of Soviet help during the Korean war gave Chinese dissatisfaction
Slow return of Soviet-seized industries during World War Two
Soviet intentions to treat China as another satellite
Krushchev's foreign policy regarding spread of Communism to poorer nations of Asia was a source of friction
China wanted N-bombs to counter American presence ro South Korea, but the USSR refused her weapons
Krushchev's peaceful co-existence
Krushchev received critism for Soviet's opposition to the great leap forward
USSR withdrew all her advisers with China
China developed her A-bomb in 1964 and N-bomb in 1976 Detente: Detente: 1960's-1979 SALT One: In 1972, the first SALT Treaty, SALT One stated that the USSR and USA would limit their number of ICBM's SALT Two: 1979
Treaty was to accomplish nuclear parity
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan prompted President Carter to ask Congress to delay giving approval to this agreement
Detente could not last after Ronald Regan took office
USSR was 'an evil empirer' negotiations would be done from a position of strength
Regan did not sign SALT Two treaty but he would abide its spirit Detente:
1960's-1979 The Helsinki Accords: The Helsinki Accords were the most successful of the detente era, because major countries of Europe could accept the divisions and boundaries to begin a more peaceful era.The USA, the USSR, France, and the UK and thirty-one other nations met to agree to the following: To accept European frontiers, including two Germanys and two Berlins (this removed tension regarding Eastern Europeans
To respect human rights. The Sovient Union was to improve her domestic record regarding human rights
To make possible easier movement of people across national frontiers Detente:
1960'-1979 Detente and Ostpolitik: Ostpolitik means east politics, it is referred to Willy Brandt's view of East-West relations in Europe
Willy wished for a united Germany, but accepted the reality that the Cold War prevented re-unification
Brandt tried to improve relations between East and West Germany and USSR
1972, Brandt signed the Basic Treaty with East Germany to improve relations
Some accuse him of selling out to Communist East Germany, others see it as a treaty in spirit of detente Detente:
1960's-1979 Strategic Defence Initiative(SDI) Known as "Star Wars" because
it was to capture the futuristic
vision of that series of movie.
Proposed to develope a
protectiveumbrella over the US to
prevent incoming missiles from
reaching their targets
The Pentagon and Reagan
Reagan tried to convince the
public that it was based on
science While White house
fantasized over their system, Soviets were worried
After the Reagan presidency was over in 1988, SDI did not have a prominent place in defence plans
From time to time today,
people fear from a rogue or terrorist nation Poland: 1981-1990 Background: Solidarity trade union was formed by Lech Walesa in 1980
1981, many strikes asked Walesa to co-ordinate all efforts in solidarity movement
This peaceful protest would bring freedom to Poland
In 1981, the government cracked down a martial law and made solidarity illegal
In 1983, solidarity was legal again, but their illegal status did not mean they had ceased to be effective
General Jaruzelski, a traditional Communist came to power in 1981 and introduced stern measures in 1988 which began new series of protests and strikes 1989: February to April, Jaruzelski engaged various opposition groups in discussion about the economy to support his style of reforms
Communist had been obliterated and Jaruzelski remained President, but Mazowiecki became Prime Minister (solidarity leader)-he created a government of communist and non-communist
The move towards liberation was to not have the Soviets intervene in the democratization of Poland
In December 1990, Lech Walesa became President of Poland Hungary: 1985 Background: Janos Kadar replaced Imre Nagy in the 1956 Hungarian Rising, knew that the economy was in trouble and began democratization
The Communist Party was divided to push reform or not
In May, 1988 the progressives won control of the party and Kadar was thrown out Opposition Groups: Two opposition groups continued their protest against this more progressive Communist leadership. They were:
Alliance of Free Democrats
Democratic Forum (peasants and farmers) Communism Collapses: The new progressive Communist Party left peacefully
The Democratic Forum won by Jozsef Natal as Prime Minister East Germany Background: The regime of Erich Honecker was the most repressive of Eastern Bloc government, ironically, the proud Junkers and burghers of Prussia were the Germans caught in the Soviet Bloc
Honecker and the Communist leaders of Czechoslovakia and Romania wanted to make no concessions in spite of witnessing the events in Poland and Hungary
Mikhail Gorbachev visited Chancellor Kohl in Bonn for his own economic problems
He stated that reunifying East and West Germany was highly unthinkable in Kremlin
In Summer and Early Fall of 1989, thousands of East Germans escaped Hungary and Poland to Austria when Hungary opened its border to Austria
The re surging Protestant church became the leader of the reform movement called the New Reform East Germany Collapse of Berlin Wall: By October 1989 demonstrators all over East Germany were demanding freedom
Honecker wanted to shoot demonstrators, but was overthrown by party officials
When the Party dumped Honecker, concessions began and he was replaced by Eron Krenz
West Germany political parties were set up in East Germany during the first free campaign
Kohl's Christian Democrats ran on reunification platform and were easily elected
The people of the East demanded immediate union now East Germany Reunification of Germany: The superpowers began a publicly support reunification
Gorbachev promised to remove Soviet troops
Britain and France gave their experiences with Germany earlier in the century
On October 30, 1990 the two Germanys, East and West became one with Helmut Kohl the first Chancellor of all Germany since Adolf Hitler Czechoslovakia Background: Czech economy was solid- it traded freely with many Western countries before the 1980's signs of stagnation appeared
In 1987 Husak, the man who replaced Dubcek in the Prague Spring event, resigned and was replaced by Milos Jakes, who continued a relatively hard line The "Velvet Revolution": On Nov. 17, 1989, huge demonstrations in Prague were violently put down Vaclev Havel and Alexandra Dubcek: These two men organized large protests
nationwide strike was declared
Communist Party peacefully resigned
Havel became President of democratic state on Dec. 29, 1989 Separation: The Czechs and Slovaks democratically separated in 1992, creating two new states Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Yugoslavia... Romania: Nicolae Ceausescu (dictator since 1965) rivalled Honecker for brutality and repression
A massacre by the government in December 17, 1989 sparked a violent pretest killing many strikers
The crowd arrested Ceausescu and his wife and were executed summarily Bulgaria Todor Zhivkov (Communist dictator) refused all reform and was dumped by Poliburo
In June 1990, Bulgaria had its first free elections when a socialist party won
Iron curtain collapsed Albania Albania became democratic in 1992; she was not a Soviet satellite Yugoslavia: Yugoslavia was not a Soviet, she was a multi-national state created by Paris Peace Conference of 1919
Hatred developed in this state between the Serbs and Croations
She tried to govern herself, but failed to. When Slobodan Milsevic became Prime Ministester, he preserved a strong, united Yugoslavia Leonid Brezhnev Led the Soviet from 1964 untill November 1982
His view of socialism was very limited where he was not able to recognize the decay encircling the Communist Party and the Soviet State
He stubbornly refused to adjust the role of the state even though he was guiding the Soviet Union into a very modern time
"Apparatchiks" became inviolate and the Party benefit from the struggles of the working class
Stability in bureaucratic position and practice became the trademark
Roots of disintegration of Soviet system were result of his conservative approach to administration Mikhail Gorbachev Gorbachev became leader of Soviet Union in March, 1985
He was the last absolute rulers of the Soviet empire
His intentions was to reform Communism
Gorbachev admired some Capitalist system especially its ability to produce goods and to generate wealth
Gorbacheve believed the Communist economic system could be reformed to produce and compete with the Capitalist
He was charismatic and a populist politician
He knew all his actions would destroy the Soviet Union
Gorbachev was able to remove corruption, he intended the form of capitalism Mikhail Gorbachev Glasnot: 1986 Glasnot meant "openness", in Russia, it meant "making public"
Gorbachev's announcement of glasnot shocked many people because he encouraged an open debate about the issues facing the country
Results of glasnot:
newspapers were less censored
academic world point of view was ordered by Gorbachev
Andrei Sakharov was freed from exile
Gorbachev denounced Stalin
democratizing communism which would be better than capitalism even though he was copying capitalism Collapse: Gorbachev wanted improvement, without a change in ideology
Gorbachev wanted to create a "socialist market economy"
The reform congress that lasted from May 25 to June 9, 1989 accomplished nothing substantial except to unofficially make criticism of the state the favorite Soviet pastime
Public despised politicians
Soviet Union declared themselves politically independant
Gorbachev was willing to push reform
Gorbachev became a social democrat
Tsarist regime has been replaced Detente: 1960's-1979 Poland: 1981-1990 Poland: 1981-1990 1989-1991 Detente: 1960's-1979 1960's-1979 The Middle East: Soviets in Afghanistan Indochina: By
Melissa and Christina Luu
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