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Educational History of the United States

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Lori Horhor

on 2 March 2015

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Transcript of Educational History of the United States

Education
Timeline
1647
The court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decided that every town with a minimum of fifty families must have an elementary school, and every town with a minimum of a hundred families must have a Latin school. The purpose of this decision was to ensure that Puritan children could read the Bible and understand their Calvinism.

1779
A two-track educational system, suggested by Thomas Jefferson, came into use. Students, only male at the time, could become either laborers or scholars. Those who continued their education to become scholars were usually from the upper classes.

1785
With the exploration of Northwest Territory came land grants and land grant universities. This ultimately marked the emergence of state public universities. These new towns were built at the expense of relocation of Native Americans.

Lori Horhor

AP Language and Composition

Educational History of the United States
It's a Monday morning. Your alarm goes off at around 7:00 am. You reluctantly get up and start getting ready to go to school. You go through your daily classes, which are around an hour each. You have short passing periods between each class, and time for snack and lunch. After your classes, unless you have a supplemental class after school, you are lucky enough to go home unless you have extracurricular activities or volunteer work of some sort. The usual, right? Whoever you are, despite your gender or race, you go to school.

Now, imagine you were a Puritan boy who has just moved into the Massachusetts Bay Colony with his family, or a young girl of the late nineteenth century whose father worked as a coal miner and whose mother worked in the textile industry...

Would education be different?
1790
In Pennsylvania, public school became free for the poor. Meanwhile, the rich were still required to pay for their children's education.

1805
This year marked the beginning of the Lancasterian model, which is how school works today. A teacher teaches a large group of students, who later pass on that knowledge to younger students.

1817
The Boston Town Meeting creates a system of free public primary schools. These schools were paid for by merchants, businessmen, and rich artisans through taxes.
1820
Boston English, the first American public high school, opens.

1827
Public school becomes open to every student of all grades for free.

1830s
Southern states forbid teaching slaves to read.

1848
The first reform school, Massachusetts Reform School, opens. This new line of schools merged the juvenile system with the school system.

1851
Massachusetts passes a law, ensuring the education of immigrants in attempt to affirm that they are civilized and would not contribute to social disorder.
1864
It becomes prohibited for Native Americans to be taught in their own languages. Native American children are sent to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, where they are isolated from Native American culture and associated with only American culture.

1867
After the Civil War, African Americans in the South gain the right to a public education. However, the schools were still segregated between white and black people.

1893
Immigrant communities lose control over their schools as the school board shifts from members that are local businessmen and workers to professionals and upper class men.

1896
In the Plessy versus Ferguson case, Congress confirms that segregation is legal. This leads to the requirement of separated public schools for whites and blacks in the South.
1905
Public education is offered to the children of Chinese immigrants.

1917
The Smith-Hughes Act establishes funds for vocation educational, which prepared students for work.

1932
This date marks the beginning of placement testing, which determined which academic courses students took, depending on their test results.

1945
Following World War I, the G. I. Bill of Rights grants college scholarships to thousands of working class men.

1948
The Educational Testing Service is established. This is the sum of most of the major tests taken in high school and for entrance to college that measure academic intelligence.

1954
The Brown versus Board of Education of Topeka results in a Supreme Court decision that prohibits segregated schools.
1968
In the Ocean-Hill Brownsville area, white teachers and African American parents become conflicted over community control over the schools. The teachers go on strike, and meanwhile, the community organizes freedom schools.

1970s
Proposition 13 stops property taxes in California, which was the primary way to pay for public school.
1980s
The Tribal Colleges Act establishes community colleges on every Indian reservation.
1994
Proposition 187 prohibits the children of undocumented immigrants from going to public school. While this proposition becomes illegal, it still disperses anti-immigrant feelings.
Violence
Recently, there has been an increase in violence in schools. In the past, only schools deep within cities were worried about actual threats of violence. However, that threat has now grown into small districts and cities like in Oregon and Kentucky. It has been discovered that children in grades as young as kindergarten have been caught with a weapon.

The threat of violence also comes from outside of the school. As a result, a lot of schools now maintain a closed campus guarded with security. AGBU MHS is an example of this. Also, some schools require that students carry identification around to confirm that they are not outsiders.

Some schools have even gone as far as installing metal detectors to decrease the amount of weaponry that enters campus. This, along with other types of searches, have caused conflict between schools and parents, who argue that such searches are unconstitutional and illegal. However, this miniature illegal action could result in the rescue of the lives of hundreds of students.
Equality
The Coleman Report, by James Coleman, argues that social class and racial background determine student achievement. This, of course, is a highly controversial topic. However, it can be seen that these factors do, in fact, have some sort of effect on the student.

Based on studies done by Rist and Rosenthal-Jacobson, there is a significant difference between the success of white, opulent students and poorer, non-white students. These studies resulted in three separate outcomes:

the creation of Head Start, which provides academically focused preschool education to low-income students
busing, which is a program that transports students to schools outside of their neighborhoods to achieve racial balance
bilingual education, which offers various languages besides English as a part of academics to bring about racial equality


Health
The toll high school has on students can be unhealthy because the extensive amounts of work deprive them of sleep necessary for the body to grow and the mind to develop properly. Without an alarm or a parent, 87 percent of high school students have difficulty waking up on school days, according to a 2002 study. A typical teenager who is going through puberty has a natural bedtime of after eleven P.M. due to a hormone known as melatonin that changes the teenager’s circadian rhythm.

Mainstreaming is also a major concern. Mainstreaming is the placement of students who are challenged either mentally, physically, or emotionally in a regular classroom. Placing these students in a special ed classroom is more helpful to the student as the student would be able to keep up with the pace and have more one-on-one time with the instructor, while on the hand, if such a student was in a regular classroom setting, the student would be lacking in the skills to fully comprehend the lessons and keep up with the other students.
Value of Education
In order to plough through challenging material, students have turned to ADD medications, including Ritalin and Adderall, augmenting them to the list of back-market drugs. In order to avoid becoming too fatigued to perform well on academic studies, students turn to drug abuse. Doctors claim that the majority of students who attempt to get their hands on the drugs are not diagnosed with ADD. Students are not the only guilty ones, however, because there have been several occasions when parents try to encourage their children’s doctors to prescribe the pills.
Cited Sources
"The History of Education in America." The History of Education in America. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2015. <http://www.chesapeake.edu/Library/EDU_101/eduhist.asp>.

"A Brief History of Learning in America." Design Quarterly No. 90/91.New Learning Spaces & Places (1974): 74-75. Web.

"Race Forward: Historical Timeline of Public Education in the US." Race Forward. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Mar. 2015. <https://www.raceforward.org/research/reports/historical-timeline-public-education-us>.

"Current Issues in Education." Current Issues in Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2015. <http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/sociology/education/current-issues-in-education>.

"1819-2013: A History of American Indian Education." Education Week. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Mar. 2015. <http://www.edweek.org/ew/projects/2013/native-american-education/history-of-american-indian-education.html>.
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