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Mesoamerica

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Julia Urh

on 19 September 2013

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Transcript of Mesoamerica

Major Cities and Social Structure
Government
Interesting Facts
The Olmec wrote in hieroglyphics. So we have a written records.
They created large stone statues to honor the Gods.
Mesoamerica

The Olmec
Human Sacrifice to Please the Gods
http://www.history.com/topics/pyramids-in-latin-america/videos#aztec-sacrifice
Toltec Information
Zapotec

Aztecs
The Mayas
The Mayas existed from 1500 bc - 1467 ad. Many things in their society like government and economy varied between city-states.
Religion
Their religion was Shamanism. Shamanism is the belief that you gain powers from animals.
They also built statues to honor the Gods.
They also believed in human sacrifice and believed it was a honor to be sacrificed.
Arts
Civilization
The Olmec civilization was started in 1500 bc. and went through 200 bc.
They had no centralized government. The government
The Toltec Civilization existed between 800Ce and 1100Ce.
The type of government is unknown but it had a warrior aristocracy that was successful.
The economy depended on agriculture and trade.
The religion was polytheistic and centered on Quetzalcoatl " the feathered serpent" which included human sacrifices
For agriculture their main crops were corn, beans, chili peppers/ Exports: textiles, and ceramics/Imports: beans, cacao, and mushrooms.
Their social structure was shrouded in mystery, was militaristic with warrior aristocracy.
The major city was Tollan.
Interesting facts about the Toltecs. They are known for their great wealth and their advanced weaponry. Their language was Nahuatl.
Religion
"The Zapotec's government was based upon politics, economics, religion and social. They were ruled by power, prestige and wealth. They had a King that ruled and would receive the throne regardless of birth right but presented themselves as an acceptable prince."

Fact!
Their government believed that they descended from supernatural beings that lived among the clouds, and that when they died, they would return to such status. In fact, the name by which Zapotecs are known today resulted from this belief. In Central Valley Zapotec "The Cloud People' is "Be'ena' Za'a".
The Aztecs sacrificed humans. They spoke Nahuatl.
They were artsy.
Mandatory school.
Killed by disease.
Advanced record keeping.
Sold children into slavery.

Economy
Based on agriculture.
They had money with certain amounts.
Have markets where they would trade.
Some of the Mayas' major cities are Copan, Quirigua, Xunantunich, Yaxha, Caracol, Tikal, Bonampak, Yaxchilán, Piedras Negras, Sak-Tzi, Palenque, and Tonina.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
They were polytheistic and honored Cocijo the rain god, and Coquihani the god of light and they sometimes used human sacrifice in their rituals.



The Olmec were an ancient civilization in Mesoamerica
Years of Existence and Government
The Aztecs lasted from about 1345 AD to 1525 AD.

The government was called Calpulli.
Religion
The Aztecs worshiped 5 different gods. Th religion was a combination of gods, dates, directions, and colors.
Agriculture
The Aztec's agriculture included corn, beans, squash, chilies, tomatoes, limes, cashews, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, and chocolate.
The major Aztec cities were Texcoco, Tlacopan, and Tenochtitlan (the capitol).

The social structure was the Nobility and the Commoners.
This section is about the Mesoamerican Toltec Civilization
Lasted from 400bc - 700 ad
The Religion
The Mayas were Polytheistic.
Their main gods were Itzamná, Chak, The Hero Twins, Ah Puch, Ix-Chel, Vacub Caquix, Ek Chuah, Backlum Chaam, Acan, and Zipacna.
Agriculture
The Mayas grew - Cornmeal, maize, black beans, roasted meat, rabbit stew, turkey and meat were usually found in their diet. The principle food of the Mayans was maize (corn).
taken from http://zapotec411.tripod.com/zapotecs/id5.html
Social Structure
Maya society was rigidly divided between nobles, commoners, serfs, and slaves.
Interesting Facts
Primary crops are:
-maize
-beans
-squashes
The Mayas believed that the world was flat, like many other societies.
Major Cities
Highly developed market system
The capital city is Monte Alban
Achievements
The Mayas Created calendar, could predict eclipses, knew a lot about the human body.
The social structure consisted of 3 classes:
-commoners
-priests
-the nobility
More Interesting Facts
The Toltecs rapidly discovered medicinal practices and learned to create pain relievers. During their human sacrifices the athletes would play a game called Tlachli which was a game used to please the Gods.
Full transcript