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IGCSE Physical Education 1.4. Muscles & Tendons
Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 1.4. Muscles & Tendons
Muscles contain two different types of fibre.
Slow & Fast Twitch Muscle Fibres
1.4. Muscles & Tendons
IGCSE Physical Education
‘Factors affecting performance’
Attach muscle to the bone.
Very strong, non-elastic cord.
Vary in size and shape.
Muscles have different shapes and sizes, perform different roles depending on their position in the body, and they can be controlled or out of your control depending on their function.
Voluntary / Skeletal Muscles
Named skeletal muscle as they attach to the bones.
Types of Muscle
There are 3 types of muscle in the human body.
Voluntary / Skeletal Muscles.
BUT YOU ONLY HAVE TO LEARN AND UNDERSTAND 11 OF THESE MUSCLES ! ! !
There are three types of muscle contraction:
The muscles remain the same length throughout.
Parts of the body remain still while other parts are working,
Bicep curl - deltoids, trapezius, latissimus dorsi etc remain still.
Gripping a tennis racket.
Holding an object still.
Attach one end of the muscle to a fixed point.
Attach the other end of the muscle to the moving part of the body.
Meaning same distance or not moving
Example in sport
Name of muscle
NOT under your conscious control.
Q1) How many muscles are in the human body?
Q2) How many of those muscles are in the head and neck?
These are the majority of muscles in your body.
Give the body shape and allow movement.
Under your conscious control.
Used for movement, especially sporting actions.
The walls of the heart.
Have to keep contracting for
crucial body functions
Found in intestines and blood vessels.
Each type allows different types of movement.
Best for aerobic activities.
e.g. jogging, long distance
Do not tire easily.
Use O2 to produce energy.
Produce little force.
Best for anaerobic/power/
e.g. sprinting, throwing.
Don't use O2 to produce energy.
Produce lots of force.
Pairs of muscles that work against each other.
e.g. biceps and triceps in the arm.
hamstrings and quadriceps in the leg.
The muscle(s) which contracts & works with another muscle to generate movement.
When movement occurs, a
is also necessary in some cases:
The two antagonistic muscles are referred to as the
The muscle which contracts (shortens).
The other muscle which relaxes (lengthens).
Happens when the speed of the movement stays the same throughout the movement
e.g. swimming front crawl - the arms are moving at a relatively constant speed as the resistance is constant.
Meaning same speed
Divided into 2 types:
- The muscle shortens as it contracts, e.g. raising a bicep curl.
- The muscle lengthens but is still under tension, e.g. lowering a bicep curl.
Meaning same tension
Pointing the toes, help to flex the knee
Flex the leg at the knee
Extend the leg at the knee
Adduct and extend leg at the hips
Flex the trunk across the stomach
Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder
Hold the shoulders in place,
move head back and sideways
Adduct the arm at the shoulder
Move the arm in all directions at the shoulder
Flex the arm at the elbow
Extend the arm at the elbow
Bend knee before kicking a ball
Kick a ball, jumping upwards
Pull back leg before kicking a ball
Pull the body down when hurdling
Butterfly stroke in swimming
Hold head up in rugby scrum
Forehand drive in tennis
Bowl a cricket ball
Pull-up, draw a bow in archery
Press-up, throw a javelin
Muscles and Movement Task:
Answer questions 1-4 and 6