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IGCSE Physical Education 1.4. Muscles & Tendons

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Rob Myatt

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 1.4. Muscles & Tendons

Antagonistic pairs
Muscles contain two different types of fibre.
Slow & Fast Twitch Muscle Fibres

1.4. Muscles & Tendons

IGCSE Physical Education

UNIT 1

‘Factors affecting performance’

Attach muscle to the bone.

Very strong, non-elastic cord.

Vary in size and shape.
Tendons
Muscles have different shapes and sizes, perform different roles depending on their position in the body, and they can be controlled or out of your control depending on their function.
Introduction
Voluntary / Skeletal Muscles
Named skeletal muscle as they attach to the bones.
Types of Muscle
There are 3 types of muscle in the human body.
Voluntary / Skeletal Muscles.

Involuntary Muscles.

Cardiac Muscles.
Slow twitch:
ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES
BUT YOU ONLY HAVE TO LEARN AND UNDERSTAND 11 OF THESE MUSCLES ! ! !
Contract quickly.
Fast twitch:
Muscle Contractions
for Movement

There are three types of muscle contraction:
Isotonic.

Isometric.

Isokinetic.
Isometric
The muscles remain the same length throughout.

Parts of the body remain still while other parts are working,

EXAMPLES:
Bicep curl - deltoids, trapezius, latissimus dorsi etc remain still.
Gripping a tennis racket.
Holding an object still.
Attachments
Attach one end of the muscle to a fixed point.
The origin.

Attach the other end of the muscle to the moving part of the body.
The insertion.
Meaning same distance or not moving


Triceps

Biceps

Deltoids

Pectorals

Trapezius


Latissimus dorsi

Abdominals

Gluteals

Quadriceps

Hamstrings

Gastrocnemius
Example in sport
Function
Name of muscle
Muscle Function
and
Sporting Significance

Involuntary Muscles
NOT under your conscious control.
Q1) How many muscles are in the human body?
600
150
Q2) How many of those muscles are in the head and neck?
These are the majority of muscles in your body.
Give the body shape and allow movement.
Under your conscious control.
Used for movement, especially sporting actions.
Cardiac Muscle
The walls of the heart.
Never fatigue!!!
Operate automatically.
Have to keep contracting for
crucial body functions
to continue.
Found in intestines and blood vessels.
Each type allows different types of movement.
Best for aerobic activities.
e.g. jogging, long distance
swimming.
Do not tire easily.
Use O2 to produce energy.
Produce little force.
Contract slowly.
Best for anaerobic/power/
strength activities.
e.g. sprinting, throwing.
Tire quickly.
Don't use O2 to produce energy.
Produce lots of force.
PRIME MOVER
ANTAGONIST
SYNERGIST
Pairs of muscles that work against each other.
e.g. biceps and triceps in the arm.
hamstrings and quadriceps in the leg.
The muscle(s) which contracts & works with another muscle to generate movement.
e.g. brachioradialis
When movement occurs, a
Synergist
is also necessary in some cases:
The two antagonistic muscles are referred to as the
Prime Mover
and the
Antagonist:
The muscle which contracts (shortens).
The other muscle which relaxes (lengthens).
Isokinetic
Happens when the speed of the movement stays the same throughout the movement
e.g. swimming front crawl - the arms are moving at a relatively constant speed as the resistance is constant.
Meaning same speed
Isotonic
Divided into 2 types:

Concentric
- The muscle shortens as it contracts, e.g. raising a bicep curl.

Eccentric
- The muscle lengthens but is still under tension, e.g. lowering a bicep curl.
Meaning same tension
Pointing the toes, help to flex the knee
Flex the leg at the knee
Extend the leg at the knee
Adduct and extend leg at the hips
Flex the trunk across the stomach
Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder
Hold the shoulders in place,
move head back and sideways
Adduct the arm at the shoulder
Move the arm in all directions at the shoulder
Flex the arm at the elbow
Extend the arm at the elbow
Run
Bend knee before kicking a ball
Kick a ball, jumping upwards
Pull back leg before kicking a ball
Pull the body down when hurdling
Butterfly stroke in swimming
Hold head up in rugby scrum
Forehand drive in tennis
Bowl a cricket ball
Pull-up, draw a bow in archery
Press-up, throw a javelin
Muscles and Movement Task:

Page 91
Answer questions 1-4 and 6
Full transcript