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Respiratory System - AP II

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Engers Fernandez

on 22 July 2015

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Transcript of Respiratory System - AP II

Left Lung
Right Lung
Hilum, where the structures which form the root of the lung enter and leave. Pulmonary vessels and Brochus.
Upper Respiratory System
Lower Respiratory System

Gases Exchange
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
The bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli beyond the 1° bronchi make up the lungs


The right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung has 2 lobes that divide into lobules


Each lung is enclosed by membranes called pleura
The lungs
9.4 Mechanism of breathing
1. Inspiration – an active process of inhalation that brings air into the lungs

2. Expiration – usually a passive process of exhalation that expels air from the lungs
Two phases of breathing/ventilation
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
Starts with two main bronchi that lead from the trachea into the lungs

The bronchi continue to branch until they are small bronchioles about 1mm in diameter with thinner walls

Bronchioles eventually lead to elongated sacs called alveoli
The bronchial tree
© Dr. Kessel & Dr. Kardon/Tissues & Organs/Visuals Unlimited
2,8653x
cilia
goblet cell
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
A tube, often called the windpipe, that connects the larynx with the 1° bronchi


Made of connective tissue, smooth muscle and cartilaginous rings


Lined with cilia and mucus that help to keep the lungs clean
The trachea
Pulmonary venule
contains much O2,
little CO2
Pulmonary arteriole
contains much CO2,
little O2.
pulmonary
artery
pulmonary
vein
blood flow
blood flow
bronchiole
lobule
capillary
network
alveoli
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
300 million in the lungs that greatly increase surface area

Alveoli are enveloped by blood capillaries

The alveoli and capillaries are one layer of epithelium to allow exchange of gases

Alveoli are lined with surfactant that act as a film to keep alveoli open
The alveoli
Bronchioles
passage of air to alveoli
Lung
contains alveoli (air sacs);
carries out gas exchange
Diaphragm
skeletal muscle; functions
in ventilation
Bronchus
passage of air to lungs
Trachea
(wind pipe) ; passage of air
to bronchi
Larynx
(voice box) ; produces sound
Glottis
space between the vocal chords;
opening to larynx
Pharynx
passage way where pathway
for air and food cross
Nasal cavity
filters, warms, and moistens air
Lower
Respiratory
Tract
Upper
Respiratory
Tract
Bronchioles
passage of air to alveoli
Lung
contains alveoli (air sacs);
carries out gas exchange
Diaphragm
skeletal muscle; functions
in ventilation
Bronchus
passage of air to lungs
Trachea
(wind pipe) ; passage of air
to bronchi
Larynx
(voice box) ; produces sound
Glottis
space between the vocal chords;
opening to larynx
Pharynx
passage way where pathway
for air and food cross
Nasal cavity
filters, warms, and moistens air
Lower
Respiratory
Tract
Upper
Respiratory
Tract
trachea
larynx
glottis
epiglottis
tonsils
tongue
mouth
uvula
nares
hard
palate
nasal cavity
sinus
tonsil
esophagus
laryngo-
pharynx
oropharynx
nasopharynx
Pharynx
sinus
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Nose
Pharynx
Larynx
What constitutes the upper respiratory tract?
air in
trachea
Diaphragm contracts
and moves down.
External intercostal muscles
pull the ribs outward.
lungs
Rib cage
moves
up and out.
Inspiration
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Inspiration - Expiration
Tidal Volume (TV):
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions (500ml).


Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV):
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation (3200ml).


Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV):
Amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation. (1100ml).

Residual volume (RV): the volume of air still remaining in the lungs after the most forcible expiration possible and amounting usually to (1200 ml)

Vital Capacity (VC):
Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration. (4800 ml)
The Amazing Human Body
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