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Human Body Systems

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7th Grade Science ALR

on 3 October 2014

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Transcript of Human Body Systems

Levels of Organization
Remember, The human body is organized in several levels, from the simplest to the most complex
The Respiratory System
: Adds fresh oxygen and removes the waste Carbon Dioxide

Major Organs and Functions
Lungs -
Main Organ
Pharynx -
Passage way for air

and food at back of throat
Larynx -
"Voicebox" - air passes over vocal cords
Trachea -
"windpipe" - connect pharynx to lungs.
Integumentary System
Largest Organ
Epidermis - Outer Layer
Dead Cells
Dermis - Below epidermis
Hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels
Hypodermis - below dermis
fat-storing cells and
blood vessels
Integumentary System
Functions of the skin
Protection (Cushions internal organs against injury)
Disease prevention
Temperature control And Waterproofing (Insulation and Homeostasis
Lymphatic (Immune) System
Collects and returns most blood that leaves the circulatory system into interstitial tissue.
This collected fluid is called lymph
The Circulatory System
: Deliver blood to cell and organ systems to start Cellular Respiration
Human Body Systems
Organ Systems
** The purpose of the 11 organ systems is for the human body to maintain homeostasis!!
Human Body Systems
Lymphatic (immune)
Circulatory (includes cardiovascular)
The Circulatory System
Major Organs and their functions
Heart - Its major muscle

Arteries - Carry blood away the heart
Capillaries - tiny vessels that exchange gases and nutrients to blood and body vessels
Veins - carry blood to the heart
--pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs, where it gets oxygenated, returned to the heart, and then pumped out through the aorta to the rest of the body.
The Circulatory System
4 Chambered Heart
Valves regulate the flow of blood between the chambers
Atria (atrium) -
Collection chamber, receives blood

Ventricles - pump blood
Circulatory System
Blood - Tissue of fluid and cells
Plasma -
liquid part of blood
Dissolved salts, sugars, proteins and more
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
Transport oxygen
White Blood Cells (WBC)
Defense and Immunity
Blood Clotting
Spleen - Helps filter out toxins in the
Cardiovascular System
Part of the circulatory system
carries nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and wastes through the body
Distributes heat to maintain homeostasis
Cardiovascular Health
Risk Factors:
high animal fat
exercise and lifestyle
lack of exercise
Respiratory System
- two large passageways, lead from trachea to lungs
- bronchioles subdivide into
tiny air sacs
- muscle that
causes ability to breathe
Respiratory System --> Cellular Respiration
Gas Exchange allows in
Gets the oxygen through bloodstream
Feeds oxygen to cells
Oxygen combines with
Digestive System
: Convert food particles into smaller molecules to be absorbed into the bloodstream and used.
Digestive System
Two types of Digestion:
- Physical breakdown of food
- Break down of large molecules into smaller molecules for absorption
carried out by digestive enzymes
- Saliva - breaks down starch
- Stomach acid - breaks down gastric protease which digests proteins.
Mechanical or Chemical?
Chewing a saltine?
Saliva breaking the saltine down into molecules of glucose?
Your tongue breaking pieces of a hamburger apart?
Pepsin (an enzyme) n your stomach breaking the hamburger into amino acids?
Digestive System
Major Organs and their Functions:
Mouth -
chew an grind up food
- saliva begins the chemical breakdown
Esophagus -
Pipe connecting mouth to stomach
Stomach -
secretes a strong acid that breaks down food
Temporarily stores the food you've eaten
- break down food to a liquidy mixture (CHYME)
- Begins protein digestion by gastric juices.
- produces insulin to regulate blood sugar levels

- produces bile, which breaks down fats in foods

Gall Bladder
- pouch-like organ that stores bile for future use
Small Intestine - after digestion, chyme enters the small intestine where it's absorbed into the bloodstream.
Villi - provide high surface area for absorption of digested nutrients.
Large Intestine:
Removes water from the chyme and gets the waste ready for excretion
-Your Colon
Excretory System
: rid the body of wastes, including excess water and salts
Regulates the intake and loss of water

Major Organs and their functions:
- main organ
Nephron -
out waste in blood that enters the kidney which produces urine
- solid (food) waste travels out
- sweat glands remove excess water and salts
- expel the waste (carbon dioxide)
Integumentary System
Hair and Nails – made of keratin.

How does your hair maintain homeostasis?
-Protects head from UV radiation from the sun
-Provides layer of insulation from changing outside temps

Immune System
To remove infectious diseases and other pathogens

Lymphatic System Immune System
Major Organs and Their Functions
– body’s first line of defense
White Blood Cells
– recognize disease and create antibodies to tag and remove them
Lymph Nodes
– help restore fluid lost by the blood and return it to the circulatory system
Immune System
- caused by a disruption in a human body system that leads to a disruption in homeostasis.

Pathogen – agent of causing a disease

Pathogens can spread disease by air, contact with contaminated objects, and ingesting contaminated food.

produce movement, circulates blood
- muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary

Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.
Body energy converters (many muscle cells contain many mitochondria)
**Violent muscle contractions require much oxygen**

Muscular System
Skeletal Muscle
Voluntary controlled movement
Spans joints and attached to skeleton
striated, cylindrical fibres
The nervous system interacts with skeletal muscles to produce motion

Cardiac Muscle
Found in the heart
Involuntary (uncontrolled) rhythmic contraction
Branched and striated
Smooth Muscle
Found in walls of internal organs – blood vessels, digestive system, bladder
Involuntary slow movement
Elongated, spindle shaped
More than 50% of body weight is muscle !

Three Main Kinds of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal System
: to provide structure and support to the human body

Skeletal system functions:
(give body shape and structure)
(protect internal organs)
(joints allow for motion)
Mineral storage
(calcium, phosphorus)
Blood cell production

(skeleton) – 206 bones
- tough, fibrous, elastic connective tissue
(bone to bone) (tendon=bone to muscle)
Fight or Flight Syndrome
state of increased alertness
Blood is redirected away from the extremities to the large muscles of the body
The heart starts working harder to move the blood to the large muscle groups as quickly as it can
Increase in Respiratory Rate
Release of red blood cells
Release of sugar by liver
Increase in metabolic rate

Increases Adrenaline
– Testosterone or Estrogen

Parts of the Skeletal System
Endocrine System
Purpose: to control growth, development, metabolism and reproduction by hormones

Hormones – chemical messengers

Has five main functions:
Regulate metabolism
Maintain salt, water, and nutrient balance in the blood
Control stress responses
Regulate growth, development, reproduction.
Produce hormones


The Nervous System
: controls and coordinates all the functions in the body.
Central Nervous System
– control center of the body, where all processes are relayed through
Spinal Cord
– sends instructions from the brain to the rest of the body and vice versa

Peripheral Nervous System
Nerves – impulses

- Nerves from senses
- Nerves to muscles
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