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Binge Drinking in College

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Carolyn Landry

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Binge Drinking in College

Factors that lead to adult alcohol dependence
Bibliography
Why do Students Drink?
Social - students believe they have more fun; need to drink to fit in
Disinhibition - alcohol overcomes shyness
Relaxation
College norm
Boredom - nothing to do but drink
Mood control - "self medication"
What Can be Done to Limit Binge Drinking?
Focus less on underage drinking, more on safety
Increase the number of Friday classes to limit Thursday night drinking
Work to prevent the sale of grain alcohol
Alcohol Free parties
Who is More Likely to Binge Drink in College?
“Taking Up Binge Drinking In College: The Influences Of Person, Social Group, And Environment”
Binge Drinking in College
Why do they Stop?
"College versus the real world: student perceptions and implications for understanding heavy drinking among college students."
Perception Vs. Reality of Drinking
Many College students perceive their peers' drinking rate and level much higher than it actually is.
This can be quite detrimental and lead to excessive/binge drinking by students.
Many students are under informed about how much their peers are actually drinking and use their perceptions to determine how much they should drink.
Colby, S., Colby, J., & Raymond, G. (2009). College Versus The Real World: Student Perceptions And Implications For Understanding Heavy Drinking Among College Students. Addictive Behaviors, 17-27.

Groh, D., Jason, L. Ferrari, J., & Halpert, J. (2011). A Longitudinal Investigation of the Predictability of the Three-factor Model of the Important People Inventory. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 37(4): 259-263.

King, J., Borsari, B., & Chen, J. (2010). Resident assistant and college students' perceptions of alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors, 35(6), 640-643. Retrieved October 7, 2014, from Science Direct.

Ludden, J. (2014, September 16). Colleges Brainstorm Ways To Cut Back On Binge Drinking. Retrieved October 18, 2014.

Nikolova, Y. S., & Hariri, A. R. (2012). Neural responses to threat and reward interact to predict stress-related problem drinking: A novel protective role of the amygdala. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2(19): 1-19.

Weitzman, E., Nelson, T., & Wechsler, H. (2003). Taking Up Binge Drinking In College: The Influences Of Person, Social Group, And Environment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32(1), 26-35. Retrieved October 7, 2014, from Science Direct.

Wechsler, H., Seibring, M., Liu, I., Ahl, M. (2004). Colleges Responding to Student Binge Drinking: Reducing Student Demand or Limiting Access. Journal of American College Health, Vol. 52, No. 4. Retrieved October 15, 2014

Wolburg, J. M. (2001). The “Risky Business” of Binge Drinking Among College Students: Using Risk Models for PSAs and Anti-Drinking Campaigns. Journal of Advertising, 30(4): 23-39.

Burke, J., Fisher, M., Ford, B., Fraser, D. (March 2007). Wasting the Best and the Brightest: Substance Abuse at America's Colleges and Universities. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Retrieved October 16, 2014

American College Health Association (2013). Undergraduate Students Reference Group Data National College Health Assessment.

Katheryn Stewart (2013). Facts and Myths About College Drinking a Serious Problem with Serious Solutions.



Whites more likely to begin binge drinking, Asians less likely
Students who drank before age 16
Students living in CoEd housing
Those who misunderstand how much alcohol is needed to binge drink
Students with parents who drink
Athletes
Students in Greek organizations
"College versus the real world: student perceptions and implications for understanding heavy drinking among college students."
Academics
Safety concerns
Fear of negative consequences
Maturity - have other commitments
Having friends/significant others who don't drink
Avoidance of dependency
Less alcohol availability
Cost
"Colleges Brainstorm Ways To Cut Back On Binge Drinking"
Motives and dangers of Pre-gaming
Possible Preventions
LaBrie, J., Hummer, J., Pedersen, E., Lac, A., & Chithambo, T. (2012). Measuring college students' motives behind prepartying drinking: Development and validation of the prepartying motivations inventory. Addictive Behaviors, 37(8), 962-969.
Bonomo, Y. A., Bowes, G., Coffey, C., Carlin, J. B. and Patton, G. C. (2004), Teenage drinking and the onset of alcohol dependence: a cohort study over seven years. Addiction, 99: 1520–1528.
Ross, V., DeJong, W., Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention (U.S.), & United States. Department of Education. (2008). Alcohol and other drug abuse among first-year college students. Newton, Mass.: Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention.
An Introduction to Binge Drinking
What will this group examine?
The Problem of Increased Perception
The major problem with students thinking their peers drink so much more than they actually do is that they think they need to drink more than they normally would in order to "keep up" with their peers.
What students do not realize is that their peers are not really drinking as much as they think they are.
This leads students to start to binge drink so they feel like they are fitting in and going along with the norm.
Informing Students About Reality
The reason why many students perception is much different from reality is because they are clearly under informed about the amount of drinking that other students do.
Social Norms programs have been set up on college campuses to inform students using things like bumper stickers and posters about how much students actually drank.
In a study these programs were shown to not have been very successful on campuses.
Now colleges are trying to use actual numbers and studies such as the one done by the American College Health Association as oppsed to posters in order to inform students, but they are still trying to find a very successful method to fix the perception of college students.
Even with surveys this is a complicated task because many students have a set perception and dismiss what colleges say.
Perception vs. Reality of Drinking
As shown on the previous slide, according to the American College Health Association, students perception of how much their peers drink is actually much higher than the amount that they actually drink.
A major difference between perception and reality is the percent of students that actually do not drink.
23% of male students had not drank in the 30 days prior to this survey, yet when asked how often students thought their male peers drank, only 5% of students said never in the past 30 days.
Students also greatly overestimated the students they thought drank daily. 14% thought their male peers drank daily when in reality only 2% did.
Overview of Pre-Partying
Pre-partying
: consuming alcohol prior to attending one’s intended destination
interpersonal enhancement, situational control, intimate pursuit, barriers to consumption
common among college students, 64% to 85% prevalence rates among current drinkers
rates have not been found to vary based on gender
provides a setting that can lead to heavy and continued drinking starting with rapid consumption
on average, pre-partiers drink near intoxication levels during pre-party itself (0.08 BAC) and nearly double that through the rest of the night
- 25% of pre-partiers reported experiencing a blackout last month, high risk
Sample of pre-gaming reasons
sample of 159 psychology students acknowledges pre-partying because it saves money, makes going out more fun, and want to get buzzed before going out

another sample of 331 partiers most endorsed reasons were showing up buzzed, save money at the bar/club, makes the night more interesting

males had significantly higher ratings for meeting members of the opposite sex, enjoying concerts and sporting events more, and conforming to social pressure


Results
Conclusions
pre-partying reasons were related to pre-partying behavior, but not to general reasons for drinking
important to examine more detailed and specific reasons for drinking, including pre-partying, drinking games, birthday celebrations, spring break, study abroad trips

Interpersonal Enhancement
: most frequently endorsed motive in a college environment is drinking to be more loosened up and outgoing, also to help enjoy a party
Intimate Pursuit
: college students perceive alcohol as facilitating sexual interaction and use it to hook up, 2/3 of participants reported drinking prior to their most recent hookups
Situational Control
: not having to worry about tampered drinks and not having to drink at the ultimate destination, can be used to avoid potential pressure
Barriers to Consumption
: ensure that one consumes the desired amount of alcohol before arriving at the destination, avoiding trouble with authorities

Colleges Respond to Student Binge Drinking
In a survey concerning the types of programs and policies 4-year colleges used in response to students' heavy drinking, most colleges responded that they had conducted targeted alcohol education and invested in prevention efforts. Half conducted social norms campaigns and a good minority restricted access to alcohol on campus.

Those schools that focused on demand reduction were less likely to ban alcohol use.

In 2002:
15% of respondents considered alcohol use to be a major problem at their institution.
66% considered it a problem.
17% considered it a minor problem.
3% considered it not a problem.

Over time, it has become more common for colleges to perceive that drinking is less of a major problem, fewer considering it is a minor problem, and more considering alcohol use to be a problem.
Alcohol Education targeted at the high-risk drinking populations of freshman (84%), fraternity or sorority members(72%), or college athletes(69%).


Investments in Institutional Prevention Efforts

90% provide counseling and treatment services for students with abuse problems

81% employing an assigned substance abuse official

61% establishing a task force to deal with substance abuse issues

48% have a cooperative agreement with community agencies to deal with substance abuse issues
Funding Sources and Their Influence
Public Funding
Alcohol Industry Funding
Foundation Funding
35% of schools reported receiving funding from sources like:

U.S. Department of Education
State Health Department
State Alcohol Beverage Control Board

Large public schools and Northeastern schools are most likely to receive public funding.
21% of schools reported receiving funding from the alcohol industry

NCAA Anheuser-Busch CHOICES program funded 63% of campuses that received industry funding
Large public schools and Northeastern schools are most likely to receive alcohol industry funding as well.
12% of schools reported receiving prevention funding from a private foundation.

Availability of funding towards social norms campaigns has influenced many campuses to turn to this approach.
Downside of this would be that the money associated with these approaches may discourage the attempt to try other preventative measure such as restricting drinking on campus
Unfortunate because social norms marketing has not even been proven to be effective

Research from the College Alcohol Study shows that availability, limited access, higher prices and stronger control policies are associated with lower rates of heavy drinking.
Changing Ways
Set clear substance use/abuse policies and enforce them consistently
Ban smoking on campus
Reduce availability of alcohol to underage students
ban alcohol in dorms, common areas, on-campus student parties, and sporting events
Prohibit alcohol advertisements
Ensure that prevention, intervention, and treatment programs are coordinated and conducted by trained professionals
Send a clear message that preventing substance abuse is a key priority for the administration by allocating sufficient funds to the effort
Why Students Choose to Drink
1. Stress:
- Students drink to escape academic and social stresses.

2. Uncertainty in Social Settings:
- Students experience more uncertainty in social situations when they are sober and they believe that they are almost guaranteed to fit in if they drink.
Research Study on Drinking Habits
- Conducted at a Midwestern university in 2001.

- Goal: to gain insight into why students drink.

- Examined binge drinking using a human behavioral model.
Human Behavioral Model states that students should theoretically drink less if they believe that:

(1) binge drinking will lead to serious physical or social consequences such as alcohol poisoning or losing control
(2) the consequences can happen to them
(3) drinking in moderation or abstaining will effectively prevent the serious consequences and will be regarded as beneficial behaviors
(4) the rewards of drinking less are greater than the costs of things such as not fitting in with friends
(5) they are personally capable of drinking less or not drinking at all.

Findings
Students were aware of the risks they were taking when they engaged in binge drinking.

When asked, they were able to identify a large number of risks associated with drinking including:

- Physical illness
- Drunk driving
- Illegal situations like underage drinking
- Losing self control
- Rape
- Academic failure
Why Students Still Choose to Drink
1. Students do not view the risks associated with binge drinking as serious.

“There are risks to drinking alcohol, but sometimes you really don't care at all. All you want to do is get as drunk as possible. And most times you could care less what happens as long as you have a good time and wake up the next morning in your own bed.”
2. Students think that the pros of binge drinking outweigh the cons.

- Great story to tell
- Part of college life
3. The consequences are minimal and no one really disapproves.

“Students have gotten away with drinking excessively with few serious consequences. The worst outcome that most personally expected was getting sick but students felt it was too minor to be concerned about.”
Method of Study
• study to determine whether adolescent alcohol use predisposes to
alcohol dependence
in young adulthood
• conducted from 1992-1998, sampled 45 high schools in Australia for two thousand students in total, then a follow up wave
• 90% of participants consumed alcohol by age 20
4.7% were drinking three or more times per week

Factors tested
: demographics, teenage alcohol and drug use, consequences and risk factors, antisocial behavior, and peer alcohol use

Results
Results
• frequent and binge drinking during teenage years was strongly associated with alcohol dependence in young adults

• Adolescents who persistently reported that most friends drank were eight times more likely to be alcohol-dependent

• Cigarette smoking, cannabis use, and anti-social behaviors were also associated with alcohol dependence


Conclusion
• there is evidence for the long-term impacts of alcohol
• prevention and early intervention are needed to address long-term alcohol problems

• lots of challenges in peer influences, normative perceptions, and intensive marketing of alcohol to teenagers

• How strictly should we regulate alcohol for young people?

Method of Study (2009)
• exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis

• hypothesize that motivations of pre-partying would be distinct from general drinking

• two surveys in order, first one 5000 undergrad students from a public and private university reported that half pre-partied at least once in the past month

• 27 most frequent reasons were then put on the second survey 2800 students completed in, 1400 had 4+ drinks the past month and 1100 of them reported to pre-partying
final sample size narrowed down to 16 reasons


Alcohol-free options -
promote clubs, service work, and events that are alcohol-free

Normative Environment
- create a social, academic, and residential environment that supports healthy habits and reaching out for help

Alcohol Availability
- require all events to be dry, first-year students to live on campus, and refuse service to underage students

Alcohol Marketing and Promotion
- ban alcohol promotion and advertising on campus

Policy Development and Enforcement
- enforce both campus and federal policies such as ID checks, DUI’s, drug and alcohol free zones

• Prevention should start before first-year students arrive on campus, mail, online programs, and open houses can educate students on campus policies and dispel normative misperceptions
• Conclusions: we have to address each of the factors that increase the appeal and availability of alcohol on campuses

Control and Management Approaches
• 2/5 college undergraduates in 2004 can be classified as heavy drinkers
• 80% of alcohol related deaths are associated with drunk driving
• ¼ of college students report academic problems caused by alcohol abuse

What factors make the first year of college a vulnerable time for alcohol abuse?

Environmental Factors
• Elevated risk during the first year: 1/5 of students who did not drink heavily in high school began to do so in college
• College students use more alcohol than young adults not attending college
• Increase in responsibility, stress, and exposures to alcohol
• Marketing and advertising, residence halls, perceived social benefits and confidence, holiday breaks, campus festivities

Scope of the Problem
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