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Unit : 5 Anatomy and Physiology

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Lisa Kainth

on 4 November 2014

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Transcript of Unit : 5 Anatomy and Physiology

Muscles
Muscle Introduction
3 Types of Muscles
Cillated - Epithelium
Cillated epithelium is the first layer of cells which can be found in the trachea or inside the nostrils, they sit on top of the epithelium cells, which is a thin layer of cells. Their function is to help an individual to sneeze, as when you breath in dust, the hairs push the dust up towards the nostrils, encouraging you to sneeze. Mucus gets trapped by the hairs, and pushes it up the windpipe in the larynx, encourages an individual to spit the mucus out.
Reference
notes and sheets taken from class.

blood vessels - biology.about.com › ... › Human Anatomy & Biology › Anatomy (2014 - 23/10/14)

Muscle tissue - www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/mammal/muscle.htm ( 23/10/14)
Pictures taken from google images.

what is bone - www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Bone_Health/ ( 2012 - accessed 26/10/14 - 12:47pm)

Stretch. B. Whitehouse. M.( 2010) BTEC Health and Social Care Level 3. p.g 185,188,189,190,193,194 ( assessed 26/10/14 - 15:47)
Human body and mind nervous system - www.bbc.co.uk/.../nervecellsandnerves/nerve_cells_and_nerves.shtml ( 2014 - assessed on 26/10/14 - 16:27)
Epithelial tissue cells
Epithelial tissues cells
Epithelial is a layers of tissue, which can be found in internally and externally in captivities around the body.
Internally they're found in major cavities in the body such as the throat, lungs, alveroi air sacs and salivary glands
Oxygen is needed to repair, rejuvenate and provide protection. The layers of tissues are tightly packed together each other thus forming layers of cells, they work together to replicate each other and act like a protection barrier against bacteria or viral infections from penetrating in.


Unit : 5 Anatomy and Physiology
Muscles

What are muscles and how do they play a role in our body?
Muscles are a form of fibrous tissue, which have the ability to produce movement within the body.
The movements include retracting, contracting and reflexion.
Mucus secreting cells
- this muscle can be found in the lining of the trachea ( windpipe) it produces mucus.
Connective tissues holds
- is a fatty type of muscle, which protects organs form internal or external damage.
Blood vessels transport
- theses are tubs which are connected to the heart, circulates blood around the body. internally it is made up of endothermic tissue and outside muscle and tissue.
Smooth muscle tissue cells at work
- muscles have the ability to relax, contract and retract, they help produce movements.
Cartilage tissu
e - protects bones from wearing down and connects tissues together. The trachea is made up of cartilage.
Pnumocytes exchange
- this is where gas exchange takes place in the alvolie and capillaries.
Cilliated cells
- are tiny hairs which can be found inside the nose and the trachea pipe, hairs traps dust particles forms it into mucus up the throat and out the mouth.
Epithelium
- theses tissues form surfaces and cavities in internally.
Connective tissue
- these form the structure of the body. i.e connecting muscle and bone together.
Muscle tissue
- this muscle helps to produce movement
Nervous tissue
- this tissue controls the nerves and neurons sending out chemical messages to the organs, so they can function aptly.
Connective - Cartilage and Bone
Muscle

Nervous
Squamous Cells
- They are the second layer of cells. They are called squamous epithelial cells, they are the thinnest and flattest layers of cells. Squamous cells have a large surface area. They are bound together strongly forming a tight embrace, they form rapid filtration in the kidney's so bodily functions can be cleared without causing damage.
They are also found in the lung tissue. Capillaries are a thin layer of squamous epithelial muscle, which cover the air sacs, it's functions are to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What is a Goblet cells function?
A Goblet cell is the third layered cells, the function of a goblet cell is to produce mucus, it traps the microbes that shouldn't be in the body, it works together with cilla hairs, which traps the mucus and pushes the mucus up the windpipe and out the body. It's function is to protect the body, from germs.

Epithelial cells
form the structure of the body. i.e connecting muscle and bone together. Plasma which is called the (Matrix) acts like a gel base material that is internally within the connective muscle forming a structure and holding the cells within together. The function of a muscle cell is to circulate blood to different types of cells within the tissue, theses are called aerolar and cartilage tissues which preform as a team to strengthen the bone.
Bone
- bone is a living growing tissue which consists of collagen which helps provide minerals and proteins such as calcium to help it to grow and strengthen.
Red blood cells
- when an individual breathes in air, it is transported to the lungs then a gas exchange occurs which is diffused to heart, heart oxygenates the blood. Veins and arteries which are attached to organs and the heart, within the arteries and veins contains plasma which transports red blood cells, which are oxygenated to the vital organs in the body, so it can function accordingly.
White blood cells
- also flow within the plasma along with the red blood cells, they are referred to as anti- bodies which play a vital role in the body such as a attacking bacteria and viruses, stopping them from spreading throughout the body, helps to accelerate an individual from getting better when they have a flu.
Areolar tissues
- is a common tissue found in the body, It looks like a elastic white tissue, which attaches muscle to muscle. it offers support and flexibility to move around, It is found within the connective tissue and play a vital function such as transporting the right types of fibers which are needed to give nutrients to the muscles, it can also be found in the dermis layer of cells connecting cells and tissues together.
Adipose
- is a fatty like tissue which surrounds vital organs and tissues within the body it works alongside the Areolar tissue. Adipose tissue fatty is a fibrous elastic tissue which is translucent, it helps to keep organs insulated and acts like a shock absorber from when an injury occurs.


The muscle contains
3
types of compartments which are
Striated muscle
,
Non-striated
and
Cardiac muscle
. They are found within the body more so connected to the bones, functions are to help to produce movement for when the muscles need contract or relax. The muscles are apart of the
skeletal systems
, they help the bones to produce movements.They are also attached to the
nervous systems
which gives chemical messages to the muscles to what to do next.
Striated Muscle
- this muscle is called a voluntary muscle as its attached to the bones, helps to produce movement. The muscle contains cells more so the mitochondria which produces energy, this acts like a catalyst to produce movement and contraction. The reason why it is called a voluntary muscle is, that it is attached to the central nervous system, which sends out nerve impulses to the muscles.
Non-striated
- these are mainly found around organs, they to produce movements but within the body, working together with the striated muscle, this is why it is called an involuntary muscle. It also works together automatic nervous system sending chemical messages. The muscle itself has two sheets of muscle which works against each other, this is called an antagonistic muscle, which means one muscle would contract and the other would relax. I.e non-striated muscle can be found wrapped around the intestines, the two sheets would be contacting pulling the intestines, in different directions, within the intestines the food would be broken down and pushed along to towards the excretion area.
Cardiac Muscle
- The cardiac muscle can only be found within the heart area inside the four chambers, the atria and ventricles. It has a simply instruction given from the automatic nervous system to contract the heart in moving rhythmically. In order to achieve this within the four chambers there is a advanced network of nervous impulses that are attached to the cells, which the nucleus, which may be horizontal or vertically are known as the inter calculated discs gives the instructions within the cell on to what to do next.
Muscular Skeletal bone
- The bones of the skeletal systems are attached to striated muscles which join muscle and bone together. The skeletal systems form the frame work of the bones within the body. The bones within the body consist of the cranium, the vertebrae, rib cage etc. It has two function first being able to produce movement with the help of the striated muscle, secondly it has the the function to protect the inner organs which are delicate, it acts like a shock absorber with the help of the muscles from attaining any injuries. The bones are joined together by cartilage muscle and synopsis fluids, to prevent wear and tear in the bones and muscles. The muscles within the arms are given the names such as flexors and extensors meaning the decreasing and increasing of an arm going up and down.

The nerves are controlled by the the nervous system sending chemical messages to the organs and muscles within the body. The automatic nervous system consists of the brain which is where the central nervous system is based. Nerves are attached to the muscles, spine, organs and cartilage bones. sending messages.
Nervous system
- There are millions of neurons packed with each other in the body. The Neurones send messages from to the cells to the nervous system and Nervous impulses are electrical signals caring messages from the Nervous systems. The nervous systems is attached to the brain, it is attached to the muscles within the body (striated -non striated) which is branched of to different parts of the body.
Sensory Neuron
- are a type of electrical impulse which pass on messages to an individual about the different types of temperatures and warnings that may put an individual in danger. They are found in the first layer of the skin( Epidermis) sensory neurons are attached to the muscles, like the palm of the hands, where its sensitive. If an individual pinched another person on the arm, the sensory nerves will send a electrical impulse to the brain ( nervous system) it releases a chemical reaction such as acknowledging the pain.
Motor Neurons
- theses nerves pass on instructions from the nervous system to the rest part of the body. it is like a cell which passes on chemical messages to the nervous system, it controls movement like contracting and relaxing. theses to are found in striated and non striated muscles.

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