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Transcript of British History
1604 - Hampton Court Conference: no relaxation by the Church towards Puritans; James bans Jesuits; England and Spain make peace
1605 - Gunpowder Plot; Guy Fawkes and other Roman Catholic conspirators fail in attempt to blow up Parliament and James I.
1607 - Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and Scotland;
colony of Virginia is founded at Jamestown by John Smith;
Henry Hudson begins voyage to eastern Greenland and Hudson River
1610 - Hudson Bay discovered
1611 - James I's authorized version (King James Version) of the Bible is completed
1614 - James I dissolves the "Addled Parliament" which has failed to pass any legislation
1625 - Charles I, King of England (to 1649); Charles I marries Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France; dissolves Parliament which fails to vote him money
1628 - Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliament's statement of civil rights in return for finances
1629 - Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules personally until 1640
1630 - England makes peace with France and Spain
1639 - First Bishops' War between Charles I and the Scottish Church; ends with Pacification of Duns
1640 - Charles I summons the "Short " Parliament ; dissolved for refusal to grant money; Second Bishops' War; ends with Treaty of Ripon; The Long Parliament begins.
1554 - Execution of Lady Jane Grey
1555 - England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake
1558 - England loses Calais, last English possession in France; Death of Mary I; Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, becomes Queen; Repeal of Catholic legislation in England
1560 - Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England, France, and Scotland
1577 - Alliance between England and Netherlands; Francis Drake sails around the world (to 1580)
1584 - William of Orange is murdered and England sends aid to the Netherlands; 1586 Expedition of Sir Francis Drake to the West Indies; Conspiracy against Elizabeth I involving Mary Queen of Scots
1587 - Execution of Mary Queen of Scots; England at war with Spain; Drake destroys Spanish fleet at Cadiz
1588 - The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John Hawkins: war between Spain and England continues until 1603
1550 - Fall of Duke of Somerset; Duke of Northumberland succeeds as Protector
1551 -Archbishop Cranmer publishes 42 Articles of religion
1553 - On death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey proclaimed queen of England by Duke of Northumberland, her reign lasts nine days; Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England
1563 - The Thirty-nine Articles, which complete establishment of the Anglican Church
1564 - Peace of Troyes between England and France
1567 - Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell, is imprisoned, and forced to abdicate; James VI, King of Scotland
1568 - Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle
1597 - Irish rebellion under Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)
1600 - Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company
1601 - Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essex attempts rebellion, and is executed
1603 - Elizabeth dies; James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England
1647 - Scots surrender Charles I to Parliament; he escapes to the Isle of Wright; makes secret treaty with Scots.
1648 - Scots invade England and are defeated by Cromwell at battle of Preston Pride's Purge: Presbyterians expelled from Parliament (known as the Rump Parliament); Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War
1649 - Charles I is tried and executed; The Commonwealth, in which England is governed as a republic, is established and lasts until 1660; Cromwell harshly suppresses Catholic rebellions in Ireland
1650 - Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king
Catherine of Aragon
Mary Queen of Scots
1618 - Thirty Years' War begins, lasts until 1648
1620 - Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the "Mayflower"; found New Plymouth
1622 - James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs
1624 - Alliance between James I and France; Parliament votes for war against Spain; Virginia becomes crown colony
1641 - Triennial Act requires Parliament to be summoned every three years; Star Chamber and High Commission abolished by Parliament; Catholics in Ireland revolt; some 30,000 Protestants massacred; Grand Remonstrance of Parliament to Charles I
1642 - Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects Parliament's Nineteen Propositions; Civil War (until 1645) begins with battle of Edgehill between Cavaliers (Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians)
1643 - Solemn League and Covenant is signed by Parliament
1644 - Battle of Marston Moor; Oliver Cromwell defeats Prince Rupert
1645 - Formation of Cromwell's New Model Army; Battle of Naseby; Charles I defeated by Parliamentary forces
1646 - Charles I surrenders to the Scots
The leading naval and commercial power of the Western world.
London was a leading center of culture as well as commerce. Its dramatists and poets were among the leading literary artists of the day.
A rising merchant middle class carved out a productive livelihood, and the economy boomed.
Edward VI, Lady Jane, Catherine of Aragon, Elizabeth I, Anne Bolyn, James VI (I), Charles I, Charles II.
Tess Luck, Rebecca Brown, Sam Yu, Winnie Wei